The down of British History — страница 12

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GCSE advanced (A)level. 2. POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION At the age of 16 young people can choose their further education at school or outside school. They can continue studying at school until the age of 18. They can leave school and continue their education in various colleges, polytechnics and vocationally oriented schools, such as drama schools, art schools ,ballet schools or schools of librarianship and others. The most part of those institutions are private i.e. fee-charging. These institutions do not give higher education, they prepare a variety of professions for industry and commerce such as sewing, typing, book-keeping and many others. The UK post school institution of higher education are universities, polytechnics and other higher education colleges. There are different

universities in the country. Admission to universities is by examination or selection (interviews).British students get grants from their local education authority. 3. Universities A university graduate leaves with a degree. It usually takes three years to get a BACHELOR OF ARTS or BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE. A MA or MS degree may be got in one or two additional years . Universities are centers of research as well as teaching and many postgraduates are engaged in research for higher education. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. British universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, traditions and general organization. Higher education has become more available in the second half of the 20th century. In 1960

there were less than 25 universities in Britain. By 1980 there were already more than 40,and by 1995 there were over a hundred institutions with the universities. There are no great distinctions between different types of universities in Britain. But still there are some categories of them .First of all ,Oxbridge. Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the medieval period. These universities consist of semi- independent colleges each of them having its own staff (“Fellows”).The “Fellows” teach the college students either one-to-one or in very small groups. This system is unique in the world and known as tutorials in Oxford and supervisions in Cambridge. Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Then, Scottish universities. By 1600 Scotland had 4 universities-Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and

St.Andrews resembles Oxbridge very much. In the other three most of the students live at home or find their rooms. There is less specialization than at Oxbridge. During the 19th century various institutions of higher education(usually technical ones)were founded in the industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. Their buildings were of local bricks so they got the name “redbrick” universities. They contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cambridge. At first, they prepared students for London University degree, but later they were given the right to award their own degrees. They become universities themselves. Now they accept students from all over the country. These universities are financed by local authority. One of the developments in education in

Britain is certainly the open university .It was founded in 1971. Some people don’t have an opportunity to study full-time, and this university allows them to study for degree. This university ‘s courses are taught through television, radio and course books. Its students work individually and with tutors ,to whom, they sound their papers. The students discuss their work at meetings or through correspondence. In summer they attend short courses. OXBRIDGE Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. They are called Oxbridge to denote an elaterium education. Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges, each self-governing and independent. Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex(mostly for men).But now the majority

admit both sexes. The administrative body of the university consists of the chancellor (who is elected for life),the vice-chancellor(who is in practice the head of the university, and is appointed by the Chancellor) and two people, whose job is to maintain discipline. Each college has its staff called “FELLOWS” The largest colleges have more than 400 students, the smallest have less than 30. OXFORD is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It didn’t come into being all at once. Oxford had existed as a city for at last 300 years before scholars began to resort to it . The end of the 12th century saw the real beginning of the university . The first group of scholars were from Paris and from other parts of Britain. A characteristic feature of Oxford is that many traditions