The down of British History — страница 10

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маңыздылығын және ролін анықтау. Сайлау жүйесінің ерекшеліктерін түсіндіру. 1. House of Commons The House of Commons comprises 650 elected members, who are known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Members of the Parliament are the representatives of local communities. At a general election held every five years, ordinary people elect one person from their constituency to be their Member of Parliament. That is why Lower Chamber of Parliament is called the House of Commons. The House of Commons hold sessions which last for 160-170 days. MPs are paid for their parliamentary work and they have to attend the sittings. The House of Commons is presided by the Speaker. The speaker is elected by the House of Commons. Although

the Speaker belongs to one of the parties he has to be unprejudiced. His function is to keep order. He controls who speaks and for how long. The speaker wears a long wig and sits in the Speaker’s Chair in the Hall of the House of Commons. Speaker’s Chair stands at the North end. In front of it there stands the Table of the House which is occupied by the Clerk of the House and two Clerk assistants. There are benches for the Government and its supporters to the right of the Speaker. To the left of the Speaker there are benches occupied by the Opposition. There are also Cross benches at the South end of the Hall which is occupied by the members of any other parties. The front bench of the Government is called the Treasury Bench and used by the Prime Minister and other ministers.

The front benches of the Opposition are occupied by its leaders. Those who sit on the front benches of both parties are called front benchers. The back benches belong to the rank-and-file MPs (back benchers). The House of Commons plays the major part in law making. A Bill may be introduced by any MP, in practice it is generally introduced by a Minister. In order to become a law a bill has to go through three stages of reading in the House of Commons, then have the Agreement of the House of Lords and the Royal assent. The first reading is just publication and distribution of the proposal among the MPs. There is no debate or discussion. The second reading includes debate, discussion and criticizing. The Speaker asks the House to vote. If bill passes the second reading it goes to a

committee. The third reading is called a report stage. The Bill is discussed in detail and many alterations may be made. Then the Speaker receives the report of the Committee and asks the House to vote again. If Ф-ОБ- 001/026 the Bill gets a majority vote, it goes to the House of Lords. 2. House of Lords The House of Lords consists of more than 1000 members, but only 250 take an active part in the work of the House. The members of the House are the Lords “Temporal” (i.e. Barons, Earls, Marquises and Dukes) and the Lords “Spiritual”(i.e. the Archbishops of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, and twenty- four Bishops). The Lords “Temporal” can be hereditary peers and peeresses and life peers and peeresses. Life peers and peeresses receive their peerages as a reward

for service and their children do not inherit the title. Members of the House of Lords are not elected. They sit there because of their rank. The Chairman of the Upper Chamber is the Lord Chancellor. He sits on a special picturesque seat which is called the Woolsack. It is a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. This tradition goes back to the period of the reign of Edward III (XIYc.). The Woolsack is a reminder of the time when England’s commercial prosperity was founded on her wool exports. The Lords debate a bill if it has passed by the House of Commons. They only have power to delay a bill ( if it isn’t a financial one). They can throw it out once, but if the bill is presented a second time they must pass it. 5. Бақылау сұрақтары: 1. Conservative party

2. Labour party 6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары: “The distinguishing feature of the British parliamentary system” 7. Қажетті әдебиеттер: 1. Электрондық оқулық 2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland” Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Лекция 6 1.Лекция тақырыбы: Educational system 2. Лекция жоспары: 1. School education 2. Post-school education 3. Universities 3. Лекция мақсаты: Бастауыш білім беру. Орта білім мектептерінің түрлері, олардың сипаттамасы.Университет және колледжердің системасымен танысу. 4. Лекция мазмұны: