The down of British History

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Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Лекция 1 1.Лекция тақырыбы: “The down of British History” 2. Лекция жоспары: 1. Primitive society 2. Roman Britain 3. Лекция мақсаты: Студенттерге өздері тілін үйренетін елдің тарихы туралы толық мәлімет беру. 4. Лекция мазмұны: Алғашқы қауымдық қатынаста тұрған адамдардың өмірімен,тұрмысымен таныстыру. 1. Primitive society on the territory of the British Isles At the down of their history the peoples on this planet lived in primitive societies. These primitive peoples, wherever they lived, began their long path of progress with stone tools, but they didn’t reach

the same time level of civilizations at the same time in different countries. The ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome were already in existence when the people living in Britain were only at the first stage of social development. a) The earliest men. In some part of Britain we can see a number of huge stones standing in a circle. These are the monument left by the earliest inhabitants of the country. The best-known stone-circle named Stonehenge dates from between 1900 and 1600 B.C. It is made of many upright stones, standing in groups of twos, 8.5 meters high. They joined on the top by other flat stones each weighting about 7 tones. No one can tell how these large stones were moved, or from what places they were brought. Stonehenge is still a mystery to scholars. What was it

used for? As a burial-place or a sacred place where early man worshipped the sun? About 3000 years B.C. many parts of Europe including the British Isles were inhabited by a people, who come to the known as the Iberians because some of their descendants are still found in the north of Spain (the Iberian Peninsula). They lived in Britain long before a word of their history was written, and so not much is known about this people, but we can learn something from their skeletons, their weapons and the remain of their dwellings which have been fond. The Iberians used stone weapons and tools. The art of grinding and polishing stone was known to them, and they could make smooth objects of stone with sharp edges and points. b) The Celts During the period from the 6 to 3 the century B.C. a

people called the Celts spread across Europe from the east to the west. More than one Celts tribe invaded Britain. From time these tribes were attacked and overcome by other Celtic tribes from the Continent. Celtic tribes called the Picts penetrated the mountains on the north, some Picts as tribes of Scots crossed over to Ireland and settled there. Later the Scots returned to the larger island and settled in the North beside the Picts. They came in such large numbers that in time the name of Scotland was given to that country. Powerful Celtic tribes, the Britons held most of the country and the southern half of the island was named Britain. The Iberians were unable to fight back the attacks of the Celts who were armed with metal spears, swords, daggers and axes. Most of the

Iberians were slain in the conflict: some of them were driven westwards into the mountains. And now this place is called Wales. The Greeks were the first to mention about the British Isles. It is from the Greek books that we know about the Phoenicians- who were great sailors and traders .The ancient Greek historian Herodotus who is called the father of history wrote that in the 5 century B.C. the Phoenicians used to come to the British Isles for tin which was used in making bronze, they called the British Isles the Tin Islands. Ф-ОБ- 001/026 The famous Roman general, statesman and writer Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War, a book written in Latin J.S .described the island and the Celts against whom he fought. He told Celts were tall and blue-eyed. They wore