The Doctrine Of Fascism Essay Research Paper — страница 2
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unity of the state. While Socialism refutes the need for any type of government at all, Fascism is founded by the concept that there is nothing but government. Fascism rejects the liberal doctrines of individual autonomy and rights and representative government. Fascism, according to Mussolini, is for liberty, the liberty of the state that is. Individual liberty is only a facade for a life of trite material pleasure. Only through the state can a man have true liberty. Democracy, as told in the Doctrine of Fascism, equates the nation to the majority, thus lowering it to the level of the majority. A state should be ruled by the quality of ideas, not quantity of supporters. Therefore, the state should be unified and lead by the will of a few good men, perhaps even one great one. The doctrine forms a symbiotic relationship between the individual and the state. The Fascist state controls the individual and at the same time is the individual. Without the state the individual does not truly exist. The state is absolute. Without the unified multitude the state cannot exist. The doctrine is a writing of extreme right-wing ideology that celebrates the state as a organic community transcending all other loyalties. Political and Social Doctrines Fascism does not consider happiness possible, certainly not individual happiness. It views pacifism as weak and incapable. It rejects all theological theories according to which man would reach a definitive stabilized condition at a certain period in history. Thus, as Machiavelli states in The Prince, there is a need for constant readiness for war. In addition in order to maintain the state, it must constantly expand. To stop the expansion of the Fascist state is to kill it. It must continually test it’s power and limitless. It must make it’s power felt abroad, if through war then so be it Marxian Socialism, according to Mussolini in the Doctrine of Fascism, is the doctrine of historical materialism. Through Marxian Socialism the history of civilization can only be explained as a struggle of interests between differing social groups, almost as if humans merely assist in the economic process. The Fascist disagrees with this concept, Fascism glorifies heroes and romanticizes about great visions of grandeur not associated with economic motives. The doctrine also argues that class struggles are not the primary agent of social change. The Doctrine of Fascism, also attacks democracies practicality. Fascism denies that a society can be ruled successfully by a majority. Especially through periodical consultation. The Fascist state is a spiritual and moral fact because it makes concrete the political, juridical, economic organization of the nation. The state is past, present, and most of all future. The State guarantees security; it provides and transmits spirit to the people; it educates them for civic virtue; and it calls them to unity. When the sense of the state declines and the materialistic and selfish tendencies of individuals and groups prevail, the Fascist state will move to their decline. Surprisingly, the Fascist state does not have a set theology. Mussolini criticizes Robispierre for attempting to create a God, and the Bolsheviks for attempting to end faith. The Fascist state approves of religion. In the Fascist state, faith is defended and respected. Fascist states are empirical ones, not only territorially, but spiritually as well. Fascism manifests it’s vitality through the empire. The Fascist empire must always grow or it will inevitably fall. Empire is the highest form of human expression of power. The Doctrine of Fascism by Benito Mussolini is an influential document which has changed the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It is my conviction that this document is largely responsible for the deaths millions innocent people. Having read the doctrine, it is frightening to think if a state of men as driven, as ruthless, and most of all as dedicated as Mussolini had described could ever be assembled again. Fascism is not only a form of government, it is a system of manipulation. It transforms human beings into mindless utensils at the bidding of the state. It lessens the value of individual human life and achievement. By creating the facades of the state’s supremacy, Fascism is able to create an atmosphere in which the masses of common folk voluntarily join in a supposedly spiritual and heroic mission. In it’s drive to power, Fascism denies the individual’s very existence outside the state. Peace and tranquillity are not options in a Fascist state. According to Mussolini, war is inevitable, often preferable. A state such as that, guided by the wrong man can only lead to disaster.