The Development Of The United States In — страница 2

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converged in the Great Awakening, the forst of many religious revivals that would sweep American society during the next two centuries. The timing, as well as the religious and social character of the awakening, varied from region to region. This quest for spiritual renewal challenged old sources of authority and produced patterns of thought and behavior that helped fuel a revolutionary movement in the next generation. The Great Awakening was not a unified movement, but rather a series of revivals that swept different regions between 1720 and 1760 with varying degrees of intensity. The first stirrings cam in the 1720’s in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. From New Jersey, the awakening spread to Pennsylvania in the 1730’s, especially among presbyterians, and then broke out in the

Connecticut River valley. How religion, social change and politics became interwoven in the Great Awakening, but in different ways and at different times. (128-131) On both sides of the Atlantic, people believed that government protected life, liberty and property. American colonists naturally drew heavily on inherited political ideas and institutions. In a new environment, where they met unexpected circumstances, the colonists modified familiar political forms to suit their needs. (Nash 136) Tensions between English and French colonizers intensified with the population growth of the English colonies. Thousands of settlers went towards the Applachians, fur traders and land speculators arrived in the French influenced region and created competion between the two. The English

established the first outposts in the Ohio Valley in the 1740’s and challenged the French. The French had driven the English out of the Ohio by 1755 and the English sent thousands of troops to America to destory French trade in 1754. When the troops neared Fort Duquesne, both sides had surprised eachother and the battle began. At first it was a standoff but the French brought out more of their Indian allies and finished off the English and American soliders. The French would continue to win for 2 more years. (Nash 147-148) The English would continuously try to lure Iroquois to alli with them, Iroquois never made a solid decision until the English fought victories over the French in 1758. The English navy cut off French trading by blocking them off in the St. Lawrence River.

(Nash 149) In 1751 there was the Currency Act. It forbid all colonies to issue paper money as a legal tender, the colonial economy was short of hard cash so this constricted trade. In November 1765, the Stamp Act became effective. It required revenue stamps on every newspaper, pamphlet, almanac, legal document, liquor license, college diploma, pack of playing cards and pair of dice. Reaction to the Stamp Act ranged from disgruntled submission to mass defiance.(Nash 153) Virginians were on edge already because of a decline in tobacco prices and heavy war related taxes had put most planters in debt. In 1773 the Tea Act was passed by parliament, this act allowed the East India Company to ship its tea directly to America. This eliminated English import taxes and gave Americans the

opportunity to buy tea cheap. The East India Company had 600,000 pounds of tea ready for shipment to America. Merchants denouced the new act a monoploy on the American tea market and that other monopolies would follow. The colonists also objected that the government was trying to gain acceptance of Parliament’s taxing. Meetings in the port towns caused agents from the East India Company to resign and citzens promised not to buy the tea. A party led by Samuel Adams had been urging citzens to send the tea back to England. Hutchinson refused to give clearance papers to the ships to return to England, and on December 16, 1773 5,000 people gather in Old South Church and passed resolutions urging the governor to clear the ships, but Hutchinson still refused. At night a band of

Bostonians dressed like Indians, got on the ships and threw 10,000 worth of tea into Boston harbor. (Nash 163) General Gage became the governor of Massachusetts and occupied Boston with 4,000 troops. In April 1775 the London government ordered Gage to arrest the actors and abettors of insurrection in Massachusetts. He sent 700 redcoats at night to seize colonial arms and ammunition in Concord. When the troops reached Lexington 70 townsmen occupied the village green. In this fight 18 farmers were hurt and 8 died. The British entered Concord where there was another skirmish, the redcoats withdrew and made their way back to Boston. Before the day was over 273 British and 95 Americans were dead or wounded. In May 1775 the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia. (Nash