The Development Of Mobile Telephony Essay Research — страница 2

  • Просмотров 440
  • Скачиваний 5
  • Размер файла 20

CDMA, (Code Division Multiple Access Technology), technology. This technology has not caught on as much as TDMA, despite the fact it has 10-20 times the capacity of analogue technology. There have been commercial consequences concerning these new technologies. After all, which is to be the prevailing technology? The situation became complicated in the mid 1990’s. It is argued that by the year 2001 there will be over 300 million subscribers to GSM across the world. What happens though if the systems are not compatible? There are however, alternative technologies to that of cellular. The first was introduced in the late 1980’s and was called Telepoint. This is a classical example of a failed innovation in Telecommunications. The idea was that there would be a series of base

stations across a region and users would have a handset which they could use to receive calls, provided they were within 200 metres of a base station. However, there were problems, such as: you could not make calls, only receive, handsets were very big and heavy and calls were very expensive. It was because of the advent of cellular and the fact that telephone boxes were much improved that Telepoint did not get off the ground. Three major Telepoint companies were Mercury, Callpoint, Zonephone and Phonepoint. In 1992, Rabbit (owned by Hutchison Telecom), tried to revamp the telepoint industry. They offered low prices, cheaper handsets and a paging service, but this still did not stand up to the better cellular service. The second alternative to cellular is PCS or PCN. This stands

for Personal Communication Service/Network. It is not too different from digital cellular, except it uses many more transceivers and base stations (five times as many). An advantage of PCN is that the bandwidth is slightly larger, so more information can be passed and the handsets are more attractive to the customer. However a big problem with PCN is that it is very costly to construct a network. Despite the cost, PCN has taken off well, particularly in the USA. In 1993 the US government set aside a proportion of the airwaves for PCN. It defined 992 regions, within which it hoped companies would want to operate. The federal government then sold licences to PCN operators, which were by no means cheap. The government made a lot of money from these sales. In 1995 companies paid the

federal government 18 billion dollars for these licences. It was then suggested in the Financial Times that it would take the same amount of money again to construct the network. However, this in no way put off the companies involved. The worlds mobile telephone networks are continuing to enjoy spectacular growth, even in relatively mature markets, annual growth greater than 60% is quite common. In the UK, for instance, the four mobile network operators, between them saw a market growth of around 75%, to more than six million subscribers in the twelve months to August 1996. And this was eleven years after the countries first cellular networks had opened. These operators were, Vodafone and Cellnet. Vodafone was launched as a subsidiary of Racal Electronics in 1984, and later

emerged as a free standing company in 1991. Now quoted on the London Stock Exchange, Vodafone is the largest cellular mobile phone network operator in the United Kingdom and is even emerging as the dominant force in cellular communications in Europe. Vodafone operates two mobile phone networks; the original analogue system and the more recently developed GSM digital alternative. In the UK mobile market, vodafone is closely followed by Cellnet, the product of a joint venture between British Telecom and the Securicor Group. Cellnet, like Vodafone, also operates two mobile phone networks, installing it’s original analogue system in 1985 and more recently a GSM digital system. Despite initial problems in Cellnet’s failure to introduce an appropriate accounting system, Cellnet now

places greater emphasis upon it’s network quality. The result is that the UK market is now evenly divided between both Cellnet and Vodafone. Today, despite aggressive competition from their digital rivals, Orange, and Mercury, One to One, the two analogue network operators have seen their subscriber base more than double, adding new subscribers three times as fast as their digital alternatives. (The Economist, 5th August 1995). In 1983, when the British government was considering applications from potential operators for cellular networks, most of the applicants assumed that each of the two licensed networks, (Cellnet and Vodafone), would have around 100,000 subscribers by 1990. In fact, they each had between 500,000 and 600,000 subscribers by that year. (Mobile