The Developement Of Civilization Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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gathering and basic herding to agriculture is called the Neolithic Revolution (Spielvogel,5). The cause of this transition was the slow but sure disappearance of the herds (Lerner,14). Man could no longer depend on the food source of the migratory throng of wild animals, nor on the meager herds they kept for themselves. The earliest testimony of permanent settlement appears in the area of the fertile crescent and its surrounding countries (Lerner,17). Historians, however, are not sure where the use of agriculture first became a strict way of life. There are four basic regions where the proof of this sedentary way of life took hold, their being the Near East, southern Asia, western Africa, and the middle Americas. There is no doubt, though, that the transition to agriculture made

man settle down, thus creating the roots for what we call civilization. It was this change that made way for the growth and development of cities and their own separate cultures (Calder,59). The beginning of cities was initiated by the growth of the villages that came before them. In the early stages of village life, there were anywhere from 100 to 1,000 inhabitants. The largest villages held up to 5,000 citizens, rivaling the size of the smaller cities of the future (Lerner,18). For the time being, however, these establishments stood mainly as fortifications to protect the farmlands and the riches they held. Soon, those living within the village communities began having spare time on their hands. All of the old jobs had been occupied, and constant development of newer and better

tools made them more efficient. New and different trades began to take ground. Among these were stronger frameworks for art, religion, and politics. With the strong development of farming, there came the need for better agricultural tools, vessels for food storage, and sturdy housing for residents. Up popped the artisans. They created many different advantageous contraptions for the use of their people. Pottery and basket weaving became a large trade. The receptacles made by these craftsmen were important for transportation and storage of agricultural as well as other goods (Lerner,19). They allowed a better use of space, and were a comfort in everyday chores. Those who were clever and had experience in the field began developing better tools for planting and harvesting, making

the job quicker and easier. This gave farmers more spare time to develop their mental capacity through various recreation. Carpenters began constructing more weatherproof housing. Shelters were no longer made of just skins and leaves, which the wandering tribes of yesteryear had needed. They were permanent shelters, some implementing basic forms of insulation. They became strongholds for the families they held. This advance started to bring a closer meaning to family life than there had been before. Those in the house would have common eating and living quarters, shared with a few select people as opposed to the whole tribe. It brought an innate meaning to close relationships, forcing man to make a distinction between home and work. This is another way in which the boundaries of

mental capacity increased during the Neolithic Revolution. Religion mixed with politics in these times. It seems that man has questioned his purpose on the earth since gaining comparatively large mental capacity. Man had been worshiping numerous gods for thousands of years, the establishment of village just gave them brotherhood and time enough to ponder together and create one, solid idea to share amongst themselves. This religion would undoubtedly be practiced throughout the village. Examples and declarations of a religious leader would dictate a way of life for the villagers. He would usually be the wisest in character and charisma and would act as a symbol of good living. It is my belief that the earliest religious/political leaders were those who created a written language.

After that initial creation, the written text would change to fit the needs of the people, whatever they were. The political or religious leader would often be able to make the big decisions about who was right and who was not. He would be able to point a finger and expel a member of the community for their bad examples. In all likelihood, he would decide who was best for what job, and could assign the lots of those in his populace. With the gain of these structures, political and religious, man had taken another step toward civilization. So, men had built for themselves a nice infrastructure upon which cities could develop. Trade between these rapidly growing towns. Barter was becoming a way of life. This would be no hard task. Man already had beasts of burden, wheeled carts and