The Decline And Fall Of The Re — страница 2

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strife and struggle between the two classes is what ultimately lead to the fall of the Republic. This struggle of the orders reached a slight compromise when plebeians were slowly given more rights, but the patrician class still dominated control. (2) Where control didn t cause strife, the Punic and Macedonian Wars finished the cycle. After Hannibal laid waste to all he crossed paths with throughout Italy during the Second Punic War, the poorer plebian farmers and laborers could do nothing other than run to the city of Rome for help. With no one to work or own the land, the wealthy patricians bought all they could. Then, upon defeat of Hannibal and Carthage, then Macedonia, slave numbers skyrocketed. With far cheaper slave labor, there was no demand for the plebian working class,

and they thus had no jobs, no money, and nothing to live or feed off of other than anger. Having so many angry and unhappy people within the city of Rome, it is no wonder civil unrest blossomed into civil war. (4) Decline to Fallen Such grand expansion and such impressive growth with little change to government structure finally ended the Republic. It is as though in the minds of the leaders, all Rome needed was to continue to grow, overtake all neighbors, be the ruling power for the known world and all else would fall into place. Reformations seem to be the furthest thing from their minds, and then when they began, those that weren t benefited directly, personally, revolted in order to have things their way. The rich get richer, the poor get poorer. Since there was no planning

whatsoever into the Republic s continuing growth, the city, and its people, eventually fell apart. (3) Sallust s View It appears to me that Sallust s blames Rome s decline and failure as a republic on its ability to conquer in a sense. Those that had to work hard for their money found that through conquering, riches would be won. A love of money and power overshadowed the virtue of being a Roman. Morals declined when such virtues as good faith and integrity were lost to avarice. Corruption and thievery followed soon after. Friendships turned out to be falsehoods only presenting themselves when ambitions of power were presented. Along with moral and virtuous decline in the people, the government officials and leaders had the exact same problems. (5) Sallust pinpoints these times

to be after conquering Hannibal and Carthage, which would make sense because this was the turning point for Rome s expansion. No longer were they just the Mediterranean power, but now an international one (after they defeated Hannibal s ally in Macedonia). (6) It is understandable, and agreeable, that this is also the point that Rome s virtues and morals hit their low and continued in their decent. Like so many other problems that plagued the Republic, they grew to fast with little attention paid to the inner-workings of the Republic or the city. All focus was placed on expanding, offsetting any threats that may arise, and continue to rake in the wealth. Greed overpowered any thoughts in how to effectively rule the Republic beginning with the heart the government and it s people.

Bibliography: (1) Western Civilization 3rd Edition, by Jackson J. Spielvogel, Chapter 5, pages 157-168 (2) The Rise of Rome, Antiquity Online, Copyright 1998 by Frank E. Smitha, Accessed 5/11/01 (3) The Fall of Rome s Republic, Antiquity Online, Copyright 1998 by Frank E. Smitha, Accessed 5/11/01 (4) Roman History, Aquella Educational Center, Accessed 05/11/01 (5) ogilvie/courses/spring99/100/readings/sallust_conspiracy.html The Conspiracy of Catiline Sallust (C. Crispus Sallustius, 1999 UMass / Amherst, Accessed 05/11/01 (6) Catiline’s War by Gaius Sallustius Crispus,

last modified February 2001, University of Alabama, Accessed 05/11/01