The Decline And Fall Of The Re

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The Decline And Fall Of The Re Essay, Research Paper Overview In all of Rome s conquests, Rome grew so large so quickly that crises in society, government and morals began to develop beyond control. The final result ended in the fall of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire. There are many reasons as the final fall, and I will elaborate on a few that I think are most pertinent. So Many Rulers, So Little Time Rome had the pleasure of encountering its first civil war in 133 BC, and part of the cause for this was due to ruling of the Empire and problems between the ruler and the senate. The first to encounter such a problem was Tiberius Gracchus, elected as a tribune to the assembly. Bypassing the senate, Gracchus had a reform that would revert Rome back to its original

greatness passed, which greatly displeased those in the senate. This reform was beneficial to small farmers, and most of those in the senate were large landowners. When Gracchus planned to run for a second term, senators at the election did what they felt was their only hope, and had him assassinated. (4) After Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune. Quite popular throughout all of Italy for reformation steps, Rome was not so pleased. He was defeated in his running for a second term, after which the senate made use of martial law and had Gaius and many followers killed. This use of force paved the way to further violence. (1 and 4) Marius and Sulla followed Gaius Gracchus causing more problems for the Republic. Marius recruited volunteers for the army with the

promise of land, which made them loyal to the ruler than to Rome. After Marius, Sulla was made consul, but while commanding over the war against Mithridates, Marius came back into view and Sulla s power was bestowed back to Marius. Upon this news, Sulla marched on Rome and Marius fled which returned the power again to Sulla s hands. Once again, Sulla left for war, and once again, Marius came back to Rome this time with the help of consul Cinna. Marius held consulship until his death, after which Cinna took over power. Sulla returned seizing Rome one last time and proclaimed himself dictator. Once things had calmed, he restored power back to the senate. (4) Even after Sulla s overtaking of the government, problems still persisted once he was relieved of command. Everything that he

had accomplished was torn apart with the First Triumvirates formed with Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar. With such power held between the three, they dominated all politics. Crassus was later killed in battle, and when the senate asked that Caesar lay down arms and return to Rome as a private citizen, he refused beginning a civil war between Caesar and Pompey, which Caesar one and became dictator. Having never wanted Caesar to rule, the senators again took matters into their own hands and assassinated him. (2) After Caesar s death, his grandnephew Octavian took command of his forces and joined up with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus forming the Second Triumvirate. Lepidus was later pushed aside leaving Rome split between Octavian and Mark Antony ensuing conflict between the two.

This conflict began the last of the civil wars, and the last of the Republic with Octavian defeating Mark Antony and controlling Rome. (2) Political and Societal Mayhem Not only was their terrible strife in ruling government from a leader standpoint, but also from the structural makeup of the government proved to cause terrible problems for Rome as a Republic. The senate was developed during the rule of monarchy and served as the main component of the Roman Republic government. Two consuls were chose to rein as leader/ruler. There are several officers below the senate and consuls, but these two parties controlled majority of the power. Initially, all positions were available to only the wealthy patrician class, and the lower-class plebeians were not allowed to participate. The