The Crusades The Quest For Holy Land — страница 2

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happy they cried. Jerusalem was well protected and only vulnerable from the north and the southwest. On June 13, they tried to storm Jerusalem but were defeated because of a lack of supplies. Extreme heat and a water shortage lowered morale. A priest called Peter Desiderius told them that if they fasted and held a procession around the walls of Jerusalem with devotion, the city would be theirs within nine days. The crusaders did this and, when they completed building three mini castles, they assaulted Jerusalem on July 13. There was a frenzy of killing as everyone was hacked down. The governor and his staff were the only Muslims to escape alive. After the First Crusade, four Levant states were established: Jerusalem, Tripoli, Anitoch, and Edessa. The success of this crusade was

due to the weakness of the Muslim powers. The Muslim reunification started in the Middle East under Imad ad-Din Zengi. The Muslims got their first great victory versus the crusaders when they captured Edessa, in 1144, and destroyed the crusader state in that region (Encarta Online). This led to the Second Crusade, which was proclaimed late in 1145(Encarta). Many people joined the crusade, including the King Louis VII of France and the holy Roman emperor, Conrad III(Pernoud 7). Conrad’s army left Nuremberg, Germany for Jerusalem in May 1147. A few weeks later the French army set out for Metz(Mayer 104). The Germans tried to cross central Anatolia in October, but the Seljuks defeated them near Dorylaeum. The survivors fled to Nicaea. The other German contingent, led by Otto of

Freising, was defeated by Turks at Ladoicea. The remaining crusaders fled to the coast of Pamphylia and were slaughtered in February 1148. Few survivors finished the trip to Syria by ship. The French army had reached Constantinople on October 4, 1147. The French then journeyed through Byzantine territory in west Asia Minor. The Turks destroyed most of them, but the French king,the German Emperor, and some knights survived and traveled by ship to Outremer from Antalya on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Zengi had died before the crusaders arrived so his sons took control; Saif al-Din in Mosul, and Nur al-Din in Aleppo. Joescelin II, the Frankish count of Edessa, took advantage of Zengi’s death and tried to regain his capital, but Nur al-Din massacred the Edessan population and

retook it. On June 24, 1148, the High Court of Jerusalem met at Palmarea near Acre(Encarta Online). The decision was made to attack Damascus, since Edessa wasn t war objective anymore. On July 24, they camped along the west side of Damascus. The Palestinian barons convinced the two kings that the orchards on the west were making the attack difficult, so they moved to the southeast. They couldn’t stay very long in the southeast because it was very open and hot. On that same day, they took back their army. The Second Crusade had failed miserably. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180, he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought

Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183(Mayer 126). Reynald of Ch tillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together to withstand Saladin at Zippori. On July 4, Saladin defeated the Latin army at Hattin in Galilee. Jerusalem surrendered on October 2(Pernoud 8). On October 29, 1187, Pope Gregory VIII, who succeeded Pope Urban II after he died from shock of the defeat at Hattin, declared the Third Crusade(Mayer 136). Three major European monarches joined: the holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I, the French King, Philip II, and the English

King, Richard I. It was the largest force of crusaders since 1095. Frederick died in Anitoch along with many others as a result of an disease. Most of his army returned to Germany. Philip and Richard reached Palestine but couldn’t regain Jerusalem. Many cities along the Mediterranean coast were freed from Saladin’s control. On July 12, 1191 Acre surrendered to the Christians. Richard left the Holy Land on October 9, 1192. The Latin Kingdom had been restored. In 1198, Pope Innocent III proclaimed a Fourth Crusade(Mayer 183). In April 1202, the crusaders asked the Venetians for transport because they overestimated the number of people who would sail. The Venetians agreed to postpone the payment due to them if the crusaders helped them recapture Zara which had been taken from