The Crusades Essay Research Paper The crusades — страница 2

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southwest. On June 13 they tried to storm Jerusalem but were driven back because of insufficient supplies. Extreme heat and a water shortage lowered morale. A priest called Peter Desiderius told them that if they fasted and held a procession around the walls of Jerusalem with sufficient piety, the city would be theirs within nine days. The crusaders did this and, when they completed building three mini castles, they assaulted Jerusalem on July 13. “There was a frenzy of killing as everyone was hacked down.”(4) The governor and his staff were the only Muslims to escape alive. The Jewish library containing 8 Torah rolls and 330 manuscripts survived. After the First Crusade, four Levant states were established: Jerusalem, Tripoli, Anitoch, and Edessa. The success of this crusade

was largely due to the isolation and weakness of the Muslim powers.(5) The Muslim reunification started in the Middle East under Imad ad-Din Zangi, the ruler of Al Mawsil and Halab. The Muslims got their first great victory versus the crusaders when they captured Edessa in 1144 and destroyed the crusader state in that region. This led to the Second Crusade, which was proclaimed late in 1145. Many people joined the crusade, including the King Louis VII of France and the holy Roman emperor, Conrad III. Conrad’s army left Nuremberg, Germany for Jerusalem in May 1147. A few weeks later the French army set out for Metz. The Germans tried to cross central Anatolia in October, but the Seljuks defeated them near Dorylaeum. The survivors fled to Nicaea. The other German contingent, led

by Otto of Freising, was defeated by Turks at Ladoicea. The remaining crusaders fled to the coast of Pamphylia and were slaughtered in February 1148. Few survivors finished the trip to Syria by ship. The French army had reached Constantinople on October 4, 1147. The French then journeyed through Byzantine territory in west Asia Minor. The Turks destroyed most of them, but the French king, the German Emperor, and some knights survived and traveled by ship to Outremer from Antalya on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Zengi had died before the crusaders arrived so his sons took control, Saif al-Din in Mosul and Nur al-Din in Aleppo. Joescelin II, the Frankish count of Edessa, took advantage of Zengi’s death and tried to regain his capital, but Nur al-Din massacred the Edessan

population and retook it. On June 24, 1148 the High Court of Jerusalem met at Palmarea near Acre. The decision was made to attack Damascus, since Edessa was no longer the war objective. On July 24, they camped along the west side of Damascus. The Palestinian barons convinced the two kings that the orchards on the west were making the siege more difficult, so they moved to the southeast. They couldn’t stay very long in the southeast because it was a hot waterless plain. On that same day they withdrew their army. The Second Crusade had failed miserably. There was only one success from the whole crusade: a group of Dutch and English crusaders had captured the cities of Libson and Tortosa.(6) The Muslims had time to regroup after the Second Crusade, and in 1169, Nur al-Din’s

forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined forces with the Anatolian Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin stopped the unification of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo under his control in 1183, and made a four year truce with the Franks in 1185 after invading Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Ch?tillon, leader of the Franks, broke the truce when he heard of a rich caravan of unarmed merchants traveling on the east bank of Jordan. In retaliation, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their forces together to withstand Saladin at Zippori. On July 4 Saladin defeated the Latin army at Hattin in Galilee. Jerusalem surrendered on October 2. On October 29, 1187, Pope Gregory VIII, who

succeeded Pope Urban II after he died from shock of the defeat at Hattin, declared the Third Crusade. Three major European monarches joined: the holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I; the French King, Philip II; and the English King, Richard I. It was the largest force of crusaders since 1095. Frederick died in Anitoch along with many others as a result of an epidemic. Most of his army returned to Germany. Philip and Richard reached Palestine but couldn’t regain Jerusalem. Many cities along the Mediterranean coast were freed from Saladin’s control. On July 12, 1191 Acre surrendered to the Christians. Richard left the Holy Land on October 9, 1192. The Latin Kingdom had been restored. In 1198 Pope Innocent III proclaimed a Fourth Crusade. In April 1202 the crusaders asked the