The Computer And Its History Essay Research — страница 4

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the manufacturing methods were not good enough to accomplish such s task. About 1960 photo-printing of conductive circuit boards to eliminate wring became highly developed. Then it became possible to build resistors and capacitors into the circuitry by photographic means. (Rogers, 142) in the 1970s entire assemblies, such as adders, shifting registers, and counters, became available on tiny chips of silicon. In the 1980s very large scale integration (VLSI), in which hundreds of thousands of transistors are placed on a single chip,, became increasingly common. Many companies, some new to the computer field, introduced in the 1070s programmable minicomputers supplied with software packages. The size-reduction trend continued with the introduction of personal computers, which are

programmable machines small enough and inexpensive enough to be purchased and used by individuals. (Rogers, 153) One of the first of such machines was introduced in January 1975. Popular Electronics magazine provided plans that would allow any electronics wizard to build his own small, programmable computer for about $380. (Rose, 32) the computer was called Altair 8800. Its programming involved pushing buttons and flipping switches on the front of the box. A smaller version of it was used on some Apollo Missions. (Chposky, 157) Although, many orders came in for the Altair and several companies got their start in computing though the Altair. For example, Steve Jobs and Steve Woznial, founders of Apple Computer, built a much cheaper, yet more productive version of the Altair and

turned their hobby into a business. (Fluegelman, 16) After the introduction of the Altair 8800, the personal computer industry became a fierce battleground of competition. IBM had been the computer industry standard for well over a half-century. They held their position as the standard when they introduced their first personal computer, the IBM Model 60 in 1975. (Chposky, 156) However, the newly formed Apple Computer Company released its own personal computer, the Apple II (Apple I was the first computer designed by Jobs and Woziniak garage, which was not produced on a wide scale). (Rose, 39) Software was needed to run the computers as well. Microsoft developed a Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) for IBM computer while Apple developed its own software system. (Rose, 37) Because

Microsoft had now set the software standard for IBMs, every software manufacturer had now make their software compatible with Microsoft. This made the process of make software cheaper and easier. That would lead to huge profits for Microsoft. (Cringley, 163) The main goal of the computer manufactures was to make the computer as affordable as possible while increasing speed, reliability, and capacity. Nearly every computer manufacturer accomplished this and computers popped up everywhere. Computers were in businesses keeping track of inventories. Computers were in colleges aiding students in research and writing papers. Computers were in laboratories making complex calculations at high speeds for scientist and physicists. The computer had made its mark everywhere in society and

built up a huge industry. (Cringley, 174) The future is promising for the computer industry and its technology. The speed of processors is expected to double every year and half in the coming years. The processors running today have a top speed of 400MHz, which could risen by the time this paper is read. As manufacturing techniques are further perfected, the prices of computers systems are expected to steadily fall. However, since the microprocessor technology will be increased, its higher costs will offset the drop in price of older processors. In other words, the price of new computer will stay about the same from year to year, but technology will steadily increase. (Zachary, 42) Conclusion Since the end of World War II, the computer industry has grown from a standing start

into one of the biggest and most profitable industries in the United States. It now comprises thousands of companies, making everything from multi-million dollar high-speed supercomputers to printout paper and floppy disks. It employs millions of people and generates hundreds of billions of dollars in sales each year. (Malone, 192) Surely, the computer has influenced every aspect of people’s lives. It has affected the way people work and even play. It has made everyone’s life easier by doing difficult work for people. The computer truly is one of the most incredible inventions in history. BIBLIOGRAPHY Aumiaux, M. Microprocessor Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1997. Avatar, Singh. 16-Bit and 32-Bit Micoprocessors: Architecture, Software, and Interfacing Techniques: