The Collapse Of Communism In The Soviet — страница 2

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they saw enjoying better living standards. This social gap called for change. Here journalist Peter Pringle interviewed a Ukrainian miner, Igar, in Donbass: The average life expectancy at the Oktyabrakaya mine is 38 years, and each miner who has worked more than 10 has lung disease. Igor s flat was two small rooms and a tiny kitchen and bathroom for himself, his wife and two children. His boy, 10, dreams of being a pilot or an astronaut says Igor, But its hopeless. To enter an institute of higher learning you have to bribe a party official and I don t have the money. Counter-Argument: The Soviet Union has never spent excessive amounts of money on the military because it always promoted the fight for universal disarmament of arms, for the banning of nuclear weapons forever, and

for every partial step in this direction. In the Soviet Union, the class gap never existed because the workers had always been satisfied with their conditions. The workers in the USSR had industrial freedom, which meant they had a share in the ownership of the industry and a share in the determination of their working conditions. The foreign policy of the Soviet Union, together with that of other socialist countries, was aimed at securing favorable international conditions…firmly repelling the aggressive forces of imperialism and delivering mankind from the threat of a new world war. Rebuttal: This is an incorrect assessment of Soviet policy. Marxist regimes pursue military might as an expression of their basic character, not in response to a particular foreign or domestic

policy or aim. As for freedom for the workers, this is also an unrealistic goal for communists. Wage and price controls are at the very heart of Communism. You can t have a totalitarian government without wage and price controls and you can t have a free country with them. Why? You cannot impose slavery upon people who have economic freedom. As long as people have economic freedom they will be free. As soon as they loose it they inevitably become slaves to the government and the political machinery that is suppose to feed them. FAILED IDEOLOGY Marxist-Leninist policies were derived from a basic misjudgment of history and from a fatal misconception of human nature. Communism failed to take into account the basic human craving for individual freedom, for artistic or spiritual

self-expression. Political Structure The Communist operational style helped to produce political systems that contained no safety valves or early warning mechanisms. Signs of disquiet were inherently delayed in reaching the top of the political ladder. A leader held on to political power as long as he could physically and politically survive, and his replacement emerged normally through political conflict. The absence of mechanisms for changing rulers who performed poorly made the effective control of power, and not the success of failure of policy, the key measure for enduring leadership. Religious Freedom Communism misread the appeal of religion and was thus unprepared for the revival of Islam within the Soviet Union itself. The Communists incorrectly believed that religion

would disappear as socialist society developed. Karl Marx wrote in his infamous Manifesto: Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions…a kind of spiritual vodka in which the slaves of capitalism drown their human shape and their claims to a decent life. Growing Nationalism Marxist-Leninism did not anticipate or comprehend the basic forces that have shaped twentieth century s international affairs. Conflicts, were intensified by the resulting inclination of the Communist sides to view each other as doctrinal skeptics. Anatoly Kuznetsov, a dissident Soviet author wrote: Freedom in the Soviet Union has been reduced to the freedom to praise the Soviet system and the Communist Party and to urge people to

fight for Communism. Counter Argument: The Soviet Union never promoted oppression or denounced expression of thought or belief. The Soviet constitution provided for the equality of the rights of citizens regardless of their nationality or race, and accorded all rights to women on equal footing with men. Freedom of the press found itself in the fact that the Communist Party, the Soviets, trade unions and other public organizations and professional unions had their own publications. Along with atheistic journals there were journals issued by the church of various religions. The rights and freedoms validated by the Soviet Constitution and ensured by social and economic conditions have become part and parcel of the life of the citizens of the Soviet state. Rebuttal: The constitution