The Civil War Essay Research Paper CIVIL — страница 6

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economic viability of slavery is a debatable issue. Slavery as an efficient labor system was not feasible, as the slaves did not have enough compulsion to do more than would be extracted from them by force. Slavery made the south?s economic system less flexible and progressive. The success of plantation agriculture hindered the growth of a more diversified economy. The reluctance of white men to work as a free labor force due to the social stigma attached to it meant that the economy never progressed beyond the rural character to industrialization uniformly. Huge profits were made by businessmen at the expense of the planters who were often indebted to the merchants both of the south and the north. Causes Of The Civil War Economic Charles Bearde gives economic issues like the

high tariff, the homestead law and the transcontinental railroad as the causes of the civil war. The high tariff issue has always been a bone of contention between the north and the south. The primary source of federal revenues until the outbreak of the civil war was duties imposed on imports. This taxation gave protection to internal industries against foreign competition, which favored the north as they had the maximum of industries. Acts like the embargo act and the non-intercourse act encouraged the growth of manufacturing in the north. The south not anticipating any major developments were strongly opposed to protectionist measures. They also believed that the high tariffs increased the prices of their imports and restricted the market for their exports. This issue brought

the north supported by the western states in conflict with the southern states. The immense land acquired by the government by the end of the Mexican war was to be distributed according to the homestead law. The north favored the giving away of land at a cheap price to the common people while the south wanted the land to be given to the highest bidder so that plantation land could be expanded. According to the homestead law, any person was given 160 acres of land, which he had to cultivate for 5 years and he paid a small fee on the acquiring of land. The law was criticized by the south, as their aim of extending plantation style agriculture was defeated. Trans continental railroads were to be built with federal aid across the American land. The north and the west were unanimous

in their support to the building of the railroad, as it would greatly benefit their development. The south did not see any benefit to them and refused to pay taxes for something that they said they did not need. These economic causes have been criticised as the tariffs were not always high except in 1816, 1828 and 1832 and was usually lower. Also when the markets for southern goods declined in Europe and the south turned to local markets, the railroads were supported by them as well. Westward expansion In 1819, there were 22 states in the American union, 11 of which were free states and 11 were slave states. Due to the increase of population in the free states, their representation in the house of representation was greater than that of the slave states. But in the senate, where

every state had a single vote, a balance was maintained between the slave states and the free states. To maintain this balance, admission of new states was usually done in pairs as far as possible with a free state entering the union along with a slave state. Many compromises were made like the Missouri compromise of 1820. This compromise meant that the states above the 36?30′ were to be given the status of a free state and the states below this line were to be slave states. This became the center of controversy later on as its repeal further widened the schism between the north and the south. Texas was admitted as a slave state when after vacillation the American union was not admitting it, they applied to Britain and this worried the Americans enough to allow Texas to enter

the union unaccompanied by a free state. The ending of the Mexican war resulted in Texas asking for more territory, which the northerners were against, as it would mean the extension of slavery. The fact that the capital of the country still had slavery was according to the north a disgrace. The north-south rift grew when many northern organizations helped fugitive slaves to escape to Canada. The question of whether the congress had the authority to decide if slavery should be allowed or not was very worrying and which led to the controversial Dredscott?s decision. The Wilmot proviso saying that areas acquired from the Mexican war should be free states was opposed by the south. Clays compromise, fugitive slave act, the Kansas-Nebraska act. Slavery- describe the institution of