The Civil War Essay Research Paper CIVIL — страница 5

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Kentucky. Most farmers tried to produce food grains for their family and their slaves so 80% of all peas and beans came from the south. Other things like apples, peaches, peanuts, sweet potatoes, hops, mules etc. despite aspiring to self-sufficiency, corn and salted pork for the slaves had to be imported from the northwest. Tobacco was grown in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, northern and western Tennessee, Missouri and Mississippi valley. It was grown in the tideland of the regions and required 6 months for their production. Rice required 9 months and a constant supply of water for its growth and was generally grown in South Carolina, Georgia and other coastal regions. The time needed for the growth of sugar was 9 months and had the largest area under production. Cotton was

grown from North Carolina to Texas and was the principle product of the south with the exception of the coastal area. It was produced in Alabama, Georgia, northwest Mississippi, southwest Tennessee, southern Arkansas, Louisiana and eastern Texas. The farming methods employed which resulted in the exhaustion of soil as no crop rotation was practiced. Some improvements were suggested by Edmund ruffle in ?Farmer?s Register? like fertilization, rotation and deep ploughing. Slavery as an institution was established by law and was regulated by law. The slaves had no property rights, could not leave their master?s premises without his permission, could not congregate with other slaves except at church, couldn?t carry firearms, couldn?t strike a white man even in defense, were not

allowed to read or write, were denied the right to testify in court against a white and were not allocated any provision for the legalization of their marriage and divorce. Anyone who might have slave ancestry would be a slave until he could prove otherwise. If a master killed his slave, he could not be taken to court. Most laws pertaining to slaves and their treatment were unevenly applied and were not enforced strictly. A slave’s fate rested on his master and most slaves were treated harshly. They could be punished by flogging or branding if they tried to run away or resist. Major offences committed by slaves like one slave killing another were referred to court. The daily routine of a slave was regulated by his master. The head of the administration was the owner. If he was

a small planter, direct supervision of the slaves was carried out. If the planter was a medium or large planter, an overseer and an assistant were hired for example if the planter was involved in politics fulltime, the planter owned large estates or needed the help. The slave drivers or the foremen were usually slaves themselves and could have sub slave drivers etc. The methods for making the slaves work were of two types-the task system where the task to be done by the slave could be done in as much time as it took in a day and this was used for rice production or the gang system where slaves worked as groups with slave drivers and they worked for a specific number of hours decided upon by the overseer and was used for the growing of sugar, cotton and tobacco. The physical

condition of the slave was supported by an adequate rough diet of corn mill, salt pork and molasses and the slaves were encouraged to grow their own garden. Fresh meals could be issued on special occasions. Slaves started working early in life with light work, which increased as they grew. Their workday was often as long as northern farmers with time off to hunt, fish, attend church and other social activities of the white family. They wore cheap clothes and shoes and lived in log cabins or slave quarters. Their medical care was looked after by the mistress of the house. Generally the conditions of the house servants were much better than the badly exploited field hands. Slaves could be privileged butlers, nurses, skilled craftsmen and filed workers. It may be pointed out here

that according to figures, very few people actually owned slaves. In the 1860s, of the total population of 8 million people of the south, only 4.3% owned slaves. Of this miniscule numbers, most people had around 2-9 slaves. In the 1830s, for the first time, political and intellectual leaders began to opine that slavery was not an evil but a good and it should be regarded as a permanent institution. This proslavery propaganda was accompanied by a hardening of public sentiment. The support of the south for the institution of slavery came not just from the whites who owned slaves. They were supported by the white population of the south who saw slaves as an inferior race and this fed their sense of superiority. They also feared competition from freed slaves for their trades. The