The Civil Right Movement Essay Research Paper

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The Civil Right Movement Essay, Research Paper The United States Civil Rights Movement was about black Americans trying gain racial equality and to achieve full citizenship rights, this was a social, political, and legal struggle for them. The Civil Rights movement was a very big challenge to segregation. Many things happened during the Civil Rights Movement, individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination, which included protest marches, and refusal to abide by segregation laws. The movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and some believe it ended with the Voting Rights act of 1965. However, I still believe it hasn t ended yet. The movement has been called many things from the Black Freedom Movement, and Negro Revolution, to the Second

Reconstruction. There were three main tenets to the Civil Rights Movement, the Post Civil War Period, the Educational Period, and the Social Movement. Following the Civil War, the 13th 14th and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution were passed. The 13th amendment made all blacks citizens free neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. The 14th amendment protected them and 15th amendment gave them the right to vote. Sharecropping was created after slavery was outlawed. This tied the land to the sharecropper. Sharecropping made blacks farm the land that was owned by whites. 10-15% of the profit was given to the blacks the rest went to the landowner. Landowners owned the General Stores that kept the blacks in debt when they purchased something on credit. Jim Crow laws were made

to enforce segregation and limit blacks’ rights. The law was created because whites feared blacks would try to take over. The Grandfather clause was included in the law. The Grandfather clause was a law that said that if you had a grandfather was able to vote in 1864 you could vote, but of course no blacks were able to vote at that time and poll taxes were also passed. The right to vote came at a price you had to pay tax. The thing was that some people could not afford the tax. Also literacy tests were required in many areas before one could vote. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 stoped most of these practices. Plessy v. Ferguson was landmark case the legality of racial segregation was upheld by the Supreme Court. At the time of the ruling, black and white segregation already

existed in most public facilities in the American South. In the Plessy decision, the Supreme Court ruled that such segregation did not violate the 14th Amendment. This coined the phrase “Separate but equal” and that was life for almost the next sixty years. The second phase of Civil Rights Reform came about through the educational system. Public schools were funded by property taxes. Few blacks owned property, and what they owned was of little value, so schools in black neighborhoods were of lower quality than those of white . The banking industry engaged in redlining to hinder advancement of blacks. They would draw red lines on a map around black neighborhoods and not to give loans in those areas. In 1909 W.E.B. Dubois founded the National Association for the Advancement of

Colored People (NAACP). With financial support he attempted to change discriminatory laws and practices through the legal system. In 1954 the NAACP led by attorney Thurgood Marshall challenged the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in the famous case of Brown v. the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education. Linda Brown was a young black girl who lived in the transitional part of town between school zones. However, because she was black she was bussed to the black school. Challenging that it violated the 14th amendment Marshall eventually argued the case before the Supreme Court. In very unusual fashion all 9 judges voted unanimously in favor of Brown. In his ruling, Chief Justice Earl Warren elated that the school board’s actions had been unconstitutional and immoral. He went on to say that