The Cia Essay Research Paper CIA The — страница 4

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created. It showed that the CIA was in the context of its time, “sharing the concerns of society, not removed from them” These concerns were reflected in the following CIA analysis: Since the notorious Moscow trial of 1937, overt Russian judicial procedure has been noteworthy for the dramatic trials in which the defendants have exhibited anomalous and incomprehensible behavior and confessions. Characteristics and manner of the defendants, and formulation and delivery of the “confessions” have been so similar in a large number of cases as to suggest factitious origin. Most noteworthy and incredible has been the recent “confession” of His Eminence Cardinal MINDZENTY while on trial in the People’s Court of Hungary…. The evident incongruities prompted this study…It

became apparent at the outset of the study that the style, context and manner of delivery of “confessions were such as to be inexplicable unless there had been a reorganization and reorientation of the minds of the confessees. There is adequate historical experience to establish that basic changes in the functional organization of the humanmind cannot be brought about by the traditional methods of physical torture-these, at the most, achieve a reluctant, temporary yielding and, moreover, leave their mark upon the victim. Newer or more subtle techniques had, therefore, to be considered . . a. Psycho surgery: a surgical separation of the frontal lobes of the brain. b. Shock method: (1) electrical (2) drug: metrazol, cannabis, indica, insulin, cocaine. c. Psychoanalytic methods:

(1) psychoanalysis (2) narcoanalysis and synthesis (3) hypnoanalysis and synthesis. d. Combinations of the foregoing. For the next twenty years, under several of names, the CIA began research on controlling human behavior. The first being Project Bluebird. During WWII the military hospitals discovered that soldiers and patients intend to speak freely when they where under the influence of anesthetics. For this reason the OSS used cannabis in their drug experiments. The first field test was performed on an underworld figure known as August Del Gracio, a member of Charles “Lucky” Luciano crime family in New York. He was given cigarettes heavily laced with cannabis. As he smoked, they questioned him about underworld activities. Del Gracio and the OSS were also involvedin an

attempt to arrange and prepare for an invasion of Sicily, and the protection of the New York docks against enemy sabotage. Directed by Shefields Edwards (head of the CIA’s Office of Security) the project goal was to determine whether a team consisting of psychiatrists, lie detector experts, hypnotists, and technicians could get better results with drugs over other means of interrogation. A month later, during the Korean War, the team worked in Tokyo to investigate four people suspected to be double agents. The results were considered to be successful. In October 1950 the team worked on captured North Koreans. When Bedell Smith became DCI, Project Bluebird goals were to develop human robots. This experiment was called Project Artichoke. It was carried out by CIA’s Office of

Scientific Intelligence. Its intentions were “to exploit along operational lines, scientific method and knowledge that can be utilized in altering attitudes, beliefs thought process and behavior patterns of agent personnel” Due to the sensitivity of the techniques carried out and substances used, this was a highly confidential project. Within a short time, there were rumors in the Dictorate of Plans about double agents that were killed in the prior MKULTRA experiments. Both projects were conducted in Germany, Far East, and the United States. In April 1953, under the direction of Allen Dulles and Richard Helms, the program began to involve biological and chemical materials. At the time, Dr. Harris Isabell was head of the drug treatment center in Lexington, Kentucky, where he

carried out numerous experiments on drug addicts. The drugs used in the experiments were supplied by the CIA. Here the testees where informed of what exactly was involved in the research and their consent was obtained ( no where else did this happen). At the time LSD particularly interested the agency. The long term effect of this drug was not known. There was one case where the doctor kept seven men on LSD for 77 days. It was considered to be even too much for “acid heads” of the 1960’s to handle! The object of the experiments conducted were to see if it was possible to control people for a long period of time, from faraway distances. “The spectacle of people’s behavior being controlled in Soviet show trials indicated that the Russians had perfected such techniques”