The Church of England — страница 4

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Religion, along with the historic Creeds, are the doctrinal standard for Anglicanism. They are printed in the back of most editions of the Prayer Book and tell us not only about the main postulates (e.g. Of faith in the Holy Trinity, Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very man; Of Original or Birth Sin; Of Free Will etc.), but also about Sin after Baptism, Of the Church, Of the Authority of the Church, Of the authority of General Councils, Of speaking in the Congregation in such a tongue as the people understandeth etc. Charles II With accession of Charles II in 1660 the Restoration of the monarchy began. Everyone is tired of Puritan rule. Puritan laws and censorship are repealed; the theaters re-open. The "Declaration of Breda" results in tolerance for Puritan

views within the Anglican fold. The conflict with Puritanism leaves distrust for religious individualism and emotionalism ("enthusiasm") among Anglicans. This will continue through the "Great Awakening" (1738-1784: Christian revival in England and America). This coincides with the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, during which many educated people cease to consider themselves Christians. Act of Toleration (1689), partially restores civil rights to Roman Catholics and Dissenters. The events since the Reformation have finally convinced most Anglicans of the virtues of tolerance and mutual forbearance. Victorian Era The trend during this period will be rediscovery of liturgy and church history - High church - and spreading Christianity – Low сhurch. The

Evangelical branch of the Anglican Church coincided very nearly with the "Low Church" party. Evangelical, a term literally meaning "of or pertaining to the Gospel," designated the school of theology adhered to by those Protestants who believed that the essence of the Gospel lay in the doctrine of salvation by faith in the death of Christ, which atoned for man's sins. Evangelicalism stressed the reality of the "inner life," insisted on the total depravity of humanity and on the importance of the individual's personal relationship with God and Savior. They put particular emphasis on faith, denying that either good works or the sacraments (which they perceived as being merely symbolic) possessed any salvational efficacy. Evangelicals, too, denied that

ordination imparted any supernatural gifts, and upheld the sole authority of the Bible in matters of doctrine High church was associated with the Tractarian movement began about 1833 and ended in 1845 with John Henry Newman's conversion to Roman Catholicism. It was also called the Oxford Movement because Newman, a fellow of Oriel College (part of Oxford University) and vicar of St. Mary's, the University church, and others were based there when they began the Tracts for the Times in 1833. There were exactly 90 Tracts, the majority written by Newman, arguing in general that the truth of the doctrines of the Church of England rested on the modern church's position as the direct descendant of the church established by the Apostles. Pretty obviously, such an argument was a

conservative answer to the various contemporary challenges to the authority of religion in general, Christianity in particular, and specifically Anglicanism Catholicism, fueled by the same need for reassurance as was the Evangelical revival. Since the 16th century the Church of England had prided itself on being the via media, or middle road, between Roman Catholicism and a more radical Protestantism. The Church of England has, in its several ways, been the Church to uphold the dignity of the individual. It gave the lead, for example, not only in the abolition of slavery but it played a critical role in stopping the slave trade itself. Today, of course, it is a Church at the forefront of the practical fight to right injustices, restore the dignity of people everywhere and put the

world on a sustainable economic footing without ruining the planet upon which God put us. II. The Church of England today We are now in what many call the post-modern era and the Church of England is experiencing a resurgence of interest in matters of faith as well as in the Church itself. Calls to the ministry are up, giving for the Church's work is up and the Church is confident that, with and by God's grace, it can make an increasingly valuable contribution to the life of the nation, its people, and do so far beyond its borders as well. Anglicans are numerous on every continent and constitute the principal Christian community in many areas, notably in Africa. The Book of Common Prayer exists in 170 languages. There are about 45 million Anglicans worldwide. There are three