The Church of England — страница 3

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Book of Common Prayer which was designed to give the people of England a commonly held pattern of worship, a sense of oneness of Church and people, with the Church sanctifying every side of national life, giving society a Godward purpose and direction. It introduced on Day of Pentecost. It is written in English, emphasizes the people's participation in the eucharist, and requires the Bible to be read from cover to cover. Fast days are retained (supposedly to help fishermen), but saints' days are not. The political nation was, for the most part, obediently compliant rather than enthusiastic. There is no evidence of any great hostility towards the church and its institutions before the Reformation; on the contrary, both the English episcopate and parish clergy seem to have been, by

the standards of other European lands, both well-trained and living without scandal. Cardinal Wolsey, who fathered an illegitimate son, was very much the exception. On the other hand, few were prepared to defy the King to defend the threatened institutions of the old church. Many benefited from the windfall of church property that followed the confiscation of monastic lands. Edward VI During Edward's reign (Henry’s son), the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant - Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in 1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass) were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. The imposition of the Prayer Book (which replaced Latin services with English) led to rebellions

in Cornwall and Devon. “Images" ordered removed from all churches by the council of regents. This also means no vestments, ashes, palms, holy water, or crucifixes. This causes so much resentment that an order suppressing all preaching follows. Mary I Edward VI dies. People are tired of Protestant looting of churches. Mary Tudor ("Bloody Mary"), a militant Roman Catholic, becomes queen, she returned the English church to communion with Rome. She was Popular at first, but soon marries the hated Philip II of Spain. Persecution of Protestants begins; Mary appoints new bishops and fires all married priests. During her reign, about 300 Protestants were burned, including 5 bishops, 100 priests, and 60 women. An attempt by Cardinal Pole (Mary's archbishop of Canterbury)

to restore monasticism fizzles when, among 1500 surviving monks, nuns, and friars, fewer than 100 are willing to return to celibacy. All this ensures Roman Catholics will remain unpopular in England. Elizabeth I Mary dies. Elizabeth I, (a Protestant), becomes queen. Despite many problems (including frequent assassination plots from Roman Catholics), she supports the enterprising middle class and England prospers. With her accession an independent church was restored and steered along a middle ground between Roman Catholicism and Calvinism. Since 1564 the Era of Puritanism had began. The word "Puritan" appears for the first time. It was biblically based on Calvinistic Protestantism - with emphasis upon the "purification" of church and society of the remnants of

"corrupt" and "unscriptural" "papist" ritual and dogma. The characteristics of their movement were the following: a disciplined, godly life, and the energetic evangelical activities. They want: a skilled, educated preaching ministry, based on the Bible as few ceremonies in church as Biblically possible (no surplice, no signing of the cross) abolition of the traditional role of bishop, and replacement of the episcopate by a presbyterian system one legal government church, controlled by Puritans. By the 1660s Puritanism was firmly established amongst the gentry and the emerging middle classes of southern and eastern England, and during the Civil Wars the Puritan "Roundheads" fought for the parliamentary cause and formed the backbone of

Cromwell's forces during the Commonwealth period. After 1646, however, the Puritan emphasis upon individualism and the individual conscience made it impossible for the movement to form a national Presbyterian church, and by 1662, when the Anglican church was re-established, Puritanism had become a loose confederation of various Dissenting sects. The growing pressure for religious toleration within Britain itself was to a considerable degree a legacy of Puritanism, and its emphasis on self-discipline, individualism, responsibility, work, and asceticism was also an important influence upon the values and attitudes of the emerging middle classes. Thirty-Nine Articles (1571) drafted as a doctrinal statement by a convocation of the Church of England. The Thirty-nine Articles of