The Chinese Ethnic Group Essay Research Paper — страница 3

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three largest metropolitan concentrations of Chinese accounted for over half the Chinese in American. The San Francisco Bay area, including as far south as San Jose, had more Chinese than any other, but the numbers in New York City and adjacent counties were almost as high. Los Angeles and Orange counties comprised the third largest center. The Asian American population is a highly urban group. In 1996, 94% of the Asian population lived in metropolitan areas compared with 80% of their total population. 45% lived in central city areas, far less then any other ethnic groups for example 55% of blacks and 22% of Hispanics. Asians also tend to live in less segregated neighborhoods than other minority groups. Within metropolitan areas there has been increasing residential dispersal

because few of the professionals have settled in Chinatowns. Although New York City s Chinatown has expanded into surrounding areas, less then half the Chinese in 1980 lived in Manhattan. An area of especially rapid growth due to immigration had been the Houston area in Texas, home to half the Chinese in the State. In Los Angeles the traditional Chinatown has grown too, but more dramatic changes have taken place in the older suburban cities just to the east. San Francisco, the reception center for many 19th century immigrants, has become the major focus of Chinese life in America. San Francisco has been the refuge and home of many retired Chinese laborers who chose to remain in America despite discrimination and poverty, and San Francisco s Chinatown had been the symbolic

geographical center of the Chinese American experience (Allen, 1988). Despite the glittering, festive image displayed to the tourists, what many people don t see it the dark side of these Chinatowns. Many of the residents have remained poor, uneducated and illiterate. They are often suffering from high rates of crime, unemployment, illness and drug abuse. Age and Sex Composition Combined with immigration, the differences in childbearing patterns have given the Chinese Americans an age structure that is very different from the rest of the United States population. Most recent Chinese immigrates have come to the United States when they were very young, 70% of all Chinese came here post-1970, so this makes the total Chinese population very young compared to the rest of the U.S.

population. In fact only 7% of all Asians where over the age of 65 compared to 13% for the rest of the population. With the young age of the Asian American population, in the coming years they will soon start their own families and create a solid base for the third generation of Asians here in a American. The easing of the immigration laws of the 1960s has also added to the number of Chinese here in America. When Chinese immigration first started it was predominately male so much in fact that for every 1400 Chinese men there was only 100 females. The immigration after the 1960s is now aiding in evening out the unbalance between men and women. The final topic to look at in this section is the fertility rate among the Chinese ethnic group. Fertility is a very useful statistic in

helping to see what the future of an ethnic group will be. Chinese and Asians in general tend to wait longer before having their first child compared to any other minority. Due to this they have an average fertility rate of 1.9 and to be specific the Chinese have a fertility rate of only 1.4 lower then any other minority. These rates are well below the number of 2.1 needed to replace the population. So to say it simply, without new immigration the population of the Chinese here in America would actually decline over time. The Future of Chinese Americans The Chinese population is become a more and more integral part of the changing U.S. society. The Chinese population is also changing as it absorbs new immigrants and a growing native-born population. It s future will be shaped by

three factors: the social status and position of Chinese Americans; the meaning of Chinese American in an increasingly diverse population; and the demographic impact of Chinese Americans on the U.S. population and society (Lee, 1998). By looking at conventional indicators to see how well a minority group is doing as compared to the majority group the Chinese have fared well and are considered part of the American middle class. Yet a significant part of the Chinese population is economically disadvantaged. High levels of poverty and use of public assistance, and low educational attainment and labor force participation characterize many Chinese. The well being of the Chinese Americans is tied to their status as a racial minority. Their minority status affects the opportunities open