The Causes Of The Sino-Soviet Schism 1927-1969

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The Causes Of The Sino-Soviet Schism 1927-1969 Essay, Research Paper Causes and Elevation of the Sino-Soviet Schism 1927-1969 It can be argued that the most significant effect on foreign policy during the Cold War, besides the arms race, was the schism and eventually antagonism between the USSR and China. Some historians have argued that the schism between the USSR continued to elevate throughout the Cold War. Alvin Z. Rubenstien, in his book “Soviet Foreign Policy Since World War II” makes the argument that “The Sino-Soviet rift is more complex today [Rubenstien wrote his book in 1985] than ever before.” (Rubenstien, 148) Some historians argue that the schism has continued to grow long after the end of the 1960’s. Other argue that the schism had reached its climax

by 1965, when both nations almost completely broke off relations with one another. By 1965 the schism between the USSR and the Soviet Union was complete and it had become a policy between the two nations to pursue antagonistic policies against one another. (Nogee, 256-61) After the end of the second World War it was a goal of Stalin and the Soviet Union to encourage, and even coordinate, the rise of communist regimes in other countries. (Salisbury, 33-7) But this was not the case in China, where the Soviets were not able to incite a communist revolution. Instead, Mao Zedong carried out a communist revolution that was independent of Soviet influence. (Nogee, 199) This, of course, irritated the Soviets and cause them to oppose the People’s Republic of China for about the first

fifteen years of its existence. Many historians feel that this was the first of the many Sino-Soviet disputes- the mere fact that China was able to engender a communist regime. (Simmons, 17) In 1927 the Soviets had unsuccessfully tried to incite a communist revolution in China, this attempt not only failed but brought the deaths of thousands of Chinese communists and the expulsion of Soviets from China. After this failure the Soviets refused to invest anymore time into the Chinese cause. The Soviets even joined the United States in support of the nationalist (and anticommunist) government “in unifying their country [China], improving their military and economic conditions.” (Warth, 56-9). Even after a Mao, a communist, had taken power Stalin seemed reluctant to cut ties with

the head of the nationalist government, Chiang Kai-Shek. This reluctance of Stalin’s led China to distrust the motives of the Soviet Union, espicially in the 1950’s when the USSR asked China to help North Korea in the Korean War. (Westard, 36-7) Some historians claim that the roots of the hostility between the Russian and the Chinese an be traced back to the thirteenth and fourteenth century when Mongol Tartars conquered most of Russia. During the nineteenth century Russian tsars conquered large parts of China and imposed unfair treaties on the Chinese empire. (Salisbury, 48-50) With this new information in mind, combined with the shaky start of Sino-Soviet relations, it become more understandable that two neighboring nations, both with similar ideologies, might not have

completely affable relations.. The first indication of cooperation between the USSR and communist China was in February 1950 when China and the Soviet Union negotiated the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliance. A portion of this treaty dealt with a loan of 300 million dollars at one percent interest to the Chinese by the Soviets. This miserly loan left the Chinese resentful. Only a few months before the loan was made to the Chinese the Soviets had given a 450 million dollar loan to Poland at no interest. Moreover, the Chinese needed the money to fight the Korean War, a conflict which Stalin had asked the Chinese to support. Mao did not have complete confidence in the North Korean cause but he finally consented his aid on behalf of Stalin and Kim Il Sung, the leaders of the North Korean