The Category of Number of English Nouns — страница 10

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manner = mode or way, manners = 1) modes, ways 2) behaviour 5) number = a total amount of units, numbers = 1) in counting 2) poetry 6) pain = suffering, pains = 1) plural of suffering 2) effort 7) premise = a statement or proposition, premises = propositions surrounding to a house 8) quarter = a fourth part, quarters = 1) fourth parts 2) lodgings There are also double plurals used with some difference of meanings: 1) brother 1) brothers (sons of one mother) 2) brethren (members of one community) 2) genius 1) geniuses (men of genius) 2) genii (spirits) 3) cloth 1) cloths (kinds of cloth) 2) clothes (articles of dress) 4) index 1) indexes (tables of contents) 2) indices (in mathematics) Double plurals with the differentiation of meaning will be found in other languages. Ukrainian:

зуб — 1) зуби 2) зуб'я лист — 1) листя 2) листи Cf. Russian: зуб — 1) зубы (во рту) 2) зубья (пилы) лист — 1) листья (дерева) 2) листы (бумаги, железа) муж — 1) мужья 2) мужи («ученые мужи») тон — 1) тона (оттенки) 2) тоны (звуки) There are some plurals which have been borrowed from foreign nouns: Singular Plural Latin agendum agenda datum data dictum dicta erratum errata memorandum memoranda medium media stratum strata focus foci formula formulae fungus fungi genus genera axis axes appendix appendices series series species species Singular Plural Greek analysis analyses basis bases crisis crises hypothesis hypotheses parenthesis parentheses

thesis theses phenomenon phenomena criterion criteria Singular Plural French beau beaux (or beaus) bureau bureaux monsieur messieurs madame mesdames Mention should be made in this connection of nouns which have two parallel variants in the plural exactly alike in function but different in their stylistic sphere of application, e. g.: cow — cows and kine (arch., now chiefly poetic) foe — foes and fone (arch.) shoe — shoes and shoen (arch.) Unproductive archaic elements are sometimes used to create the atmosphere of elevated speech. This may also be traced in other languages. Compare the Russian: сын — 1) сыновья, сыновей; 2) сыны, сынов (e. g.: сыны отечества). Morphological variation will be found in nouns foreign in origin. Through

the natural process of assimilation some borrowed nouns have developed parallel native forms, as in: formula — formulae, formulas terminus — termini, terminuses focus — foci, focuses stratum — strata, stratums Foreign plurals are decidedly more bookish than the native ones. For all the details concerning the grammatical organisation of nouns and their patterning in different kind of structures students are referred to the text-books on English grammar. Two things should be noted here. It is important to observe that in certain contexts nouns can weaken their meaning of "substance" and approach adjectives thus making the idea of qualities of the given substance predominant in the speaker's mind. Nouns functioning in this position are generally modified by

adverbials of degree, e. g.: "You were always more of a realist than Jon; and never so innocent". (Galsworthy) "We're all fond of you", he said, "If you'd only" —he was going to say, "behave yourself", but changed it to — "if you'd only be more of a wife to him". (Galsworthy) "Why had he ever been fool enough to see her again". (Galsworthy) "Not much of an animal, is it?" groaned Rhett. "Looks like he'll die. But he is the best I could find in the shafts". (Mitchell) The use of a noun rather than an adjective is very often preferred as a more forcible expressive means to intensify the given quality. Compare the following synonymic forms of expression: He was quite a success.— He was quite

successful. It was good fun.— It was funny. And here are illustrative examples of nouns weakening their meaning of "substance" and approaching adverbs. Such adverbial use shows great diversity. Deep-rooted in English grammar, this use is most idiosyncratic in its nature. We find here patterns of different structural meaning: a) adverbial relations of time, as in: life long, week long, age long, etc.; adverbial relations of comparison: straw yellow, silver grey, ash blond, ice cold, snow white, iron hard, sky blue, dog tired, paper white, pencil thin, ruler straight, primrose yellow, brick red, blade sharp; different degree of quality: mountains high, a bit longer, a trifle easier, a shade darker, ankle deep. Patterns of this kind are generally used metaphorically and