The category of Mood — страница 7

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mood grammemes may acquire in certain environments, and the types of sentences and clauses they are used in, are not part of the morphological system of moods and need not be treated here. Still an, exception can be made. Some linguists l think that would help in the sentence If he were here he would help us represents a separate mood called 'conditional'. The arguments are as follows: 1. The form would help expresses 'dependent unreality': the realization of the action depends on the condition expressed in the subordinate clause (If-clause). 2. It is 'mainly used in the principal clause of a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition'. 3. Should is used for the first person and would for the other persons. Let us analyze these arguments. 1. If the meaning of

'dependent unreality' is to be treated as the meaning of a separate mood, then the meaning of 'dependent reality' in a similar sentence If he is here, he will help us must likewise be regarded as the meaning of a separate mood which is to be distinguished from the indicative mood. The meaning of tell in the sentence If you see her tell her to come can also be defined as 'dependent urging' and be regarded as the meaning of a separate mood distinct from the imperative mood. 2. The second argument deals with speech environment and is of little value since the same authors produce examples of the 'conditional mood' in different types of sentences. Would you mind my opening the window? I should like to speak to you, etc. 3. The third argument is justly rejected by G.N. Vorontsova

who produces many literary examples to show that ' would-Forms' are used with the first person as often as 'should-forms'. E. g. If I had held another pistol in my hand /would have shot him. I would love to think that you took an interest in teaching me… I wish I had a lot of money, I wouldn't live another day in London. (Galsworthy). Besides, the popular use of forms with – ‘d instead of should and would shows the oblitaration of 'person' distinctions. 4. The name conditional hardly fits, seeing that the forms with should–would are as a rule not used in conditional clauses. They are mostly used in principal clauses or simple sentences, which distinguishes their distribution from that of forms without should – would used almost exclusively in subordinate clauses. E. g.

After all, if he lost it would not be he who paid. (Galsworthy). Under normal conditions Winifred would merely have locked the door. (lb). The difference between the two sets of opposemes had written (order) wrote were written (voice) were writing (aspect) should have written (order) should write should be written (voice) should be writing (aspect) would write (person, irregular) Is thus a matter of usage. That does not exclude, of course, «the possibility of a language category with speech significance (cf. the categories of case, voice). Hence the necessity of further investigation. What unites all the grammemes above and distinguishes them from the homonymous grammemes of the indicative mood as a system is 1) the meaning of «non-fact», the presentation of the action as

something imaginary, 2) the system of opposemes, as contrasted with that of the indicative mood. 4. The Imperative Mood The imperative mood represents an action as a command, urging, request, exhortation addressed to one's interlocutor^). It is a direct expression of one's will. Therefore it is much more 'subjective' than the indicative mood. Its modal meaning is very strong and distinct. The imperative mood is morphologically the least developed of all moods. In fact, the grammeme write, know, warn, search, do, etc. is the only one regularly met in speech (as to don't write, do write). The 'continuous' and 'passive' opposites of this grammeme (be writing, be searching, etc; be known, be warned, etc.) are very rare. E.g. B e always searching for new sensations. (Wilde). Be warned

in time, mend your manner. (Shaw). Though the system of the 'imperative' mood does not contain 'person' opposemes, it cannot be said that there is no meaning of 'person' in the imperative mood grammemes. On the contrary, all of them are united by the meaning of 'second person' because it is always to his interlocutor (the second person) that the speaker addresses his order or request expressed with the help of – imperative mood forms. Thus the meaning of «second person» is a lexico-grammatical meaning common to all the imperative mood grammemes. This meaning makes it unnecessary to use the subject you with predicate verbs in the imperative mood. But sometimes you is used for emphasis, as in Don't you do it! Some linguists are of the opinion that Modern English possesses