The category of Mood — страница 5

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of 'perfect.' – 'non-perfect' order. 3. The grammemes in question are not 'mood forms'. As we know all the grammemes of the subjunctive mood (with the exception of be) are homonymous with those of the indicative mood. So the fact that would rain is used in both moods proves nothing. The examples produced by A.I. Smirnitsky clearly show the difference between would rain in the sentence I thought it would rain and in the sentence I think it would rain, if it were not so windy. The first would rain is opposed to will rain (I think it will rain) and denotes a real action following some other action in the past (I thought…). In other words, it possesses the meanings of 'indicative' mood and 'relative' posteriority. The second would rain cannot be opposed to will rain. It denotes

an imaginary action simultaneous with or following the moment of speech (I think…). Hence, it has the meanings of 'non-perfect' order and 'subjunctive mood'. The category of person in the Indo-European languages serves to present an action as associated by the speaking person with himself (or a group of persons including the speaker), the person or persons addressed, and the person or thing (persons or things) not participating in the process of speech. (Cf. with the meanings of the personal pronouns.) Thus in Russian it is represented in sets of three-member opposemes such as читаю – читаешь – читает читаем – читаете – читают Likewise in Modern German we have gehe – gehst – geht gehen – geht – gehen In Modern English the

category of person has certain peculiarities. 1. The second member of the opposemes speak – speakest – speaks am – art – is is not used colloquially. It occurs in Modern English only in poetry, in solemn or pathetic prose with a distinct archaic flavour, e.g.: Kind nature, thou art to all a bountiful mother. (Carlyle). The category of person is practically represented by two-member opposemes: speak – speaks, am – is. 2. Person opposemes are neutralized when associated with the 'plural' meaning. A.I. Smirnitsky thinks that owing to the presence of the plural personal pronouns (we, you, they) person distinctions are felt in the plural of the verb as well. E. g. we know – you know – they know. This idea is open to criticism. If the verb itself (in the plural)

does not show any person distinctions we are bound to admit that in Modern English the verb in the plural has no person. Thus if we overlook the archaic writest or speakest, we should say that in all verbs (but the defective verbs having no person distinctions at all: he can, she may) the person opposerne is found only in the singular, and it consists of two members (speak – speaks), the third person with a positive morpheme being opposed to the first person with a zero morpheme. 3. Person distinctions do not go with the meaning of the 'past tense' in the English verb, e. g. I (he) asked… (cf. the Russian Я (он/ты) спросил). 4. As regards all those groups of grammemes where the word-morphemes shall and should are opposed to the word-morphemes will, would, one has

to speak of the first person expressed by forms with shall (should) as opposed to the non-first person expressed by the forms with will (would): The person distinctions in such opposemes (shall come – will come) are not connected-with number meanings. These distinctions, however, are being gradually obliterated through the spreading of -'ll and the extensive use of will and would for shall and should. The category of number shows whether the action is associated with one doer or with more than one. Accordingly it denotes something fundamentally different from what is indicated by the number of nouns. We see here not the 'oneness' or 'more-than-oneness' of actions, but the connection with the singular or plural doer. As M. Bryant puts it, «He eats three times a day» does not

indicate a single eating but a single eater. The category is represented in its purity in the opposeme was – were and accordingly in all analytical forms containing was – were (was writing – were writing', was written – were written). In am – are, is – are or am, is – are it is blended with person. Likewise in speaks – speak we actually have the 'third person singular' opposed to the non-'third-person-singular'. Accordingly the category of number is but scantily represented in Modern English. Some verbs do not distinguish number at all because of their peculiar historical development: / (we) can…, he (they) must…, others are but rarely used in the singular because the meaning of 'oneness' is hardly compatible with their lexical meanings, e. g. to crowd, to