The category of Mood — страница 2

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and 'suppositional'), B.A. Ilyish, L.P. Vinokurova, V.N. Zhigadlo, I.P. Iva-nova, L.L. Iofik find only three moods – 'indicative', 'imperative' and 'subjunctive'. The latter, according to B.A. Ilyish appears in two forms – the conditional and the subjunctive. L.S. Barkhudarov and D.A. Shteling distinguish only the 'indicative' and the 'subjunctive' mood. The latter is subdivided into 'subjunctive I' and 'subjunctive IF. The 'imperative' and the 'conjunctive' are treated as forms outside the category of mood. G.N. Vorontsova distinguishes four moods in English: 1) 'indicative', 2) 'optative', represented in three varieties ('imperative', 'desiderative', 'subjunctive'), 3) 'speculative', found in two varieties ('dubitative' and

'irrealis') and 4) 'presumptive'. In general the number of English moods in different theories varies from two to seventeen. In this work the indicative, imperative and subjunctive moods are considered. The difficulty of distinguishing other moods from the indicative in English is connected with the fact that, barring be, they do not contain a single form which is not used in the indicative mood. At the same time the indicative mood contains many forms not used in other moods. The subjunctive mood is richer in forms than the imperative mood. So the meaning of the three moods are distinguished in the language structure not so much by the opposition of individual forms (as is the case in the opposemes of other categories), as by the opposition of the systems of forms each mood

possesses. By way of illustration let us compare the synthetic forms of the lexeme have in the three moods. Indicative Subjunctive Imperative have, has, had have, had have This is why it is difficult to represent the category of mood in opposemes, like other categories. In speech, the meanings of the three moods are distinguished not so much by the forms of the verbs, as by their distribution. Cf. When I need a thing, I go and buy it. We insist that he go and buy it. Go and buy it. One of the most important differences between the indicative and the other moods is that the meaning of 'tense' does not go with the meanings of subjunctive mood and imperative mood. 'Tense' reflects the real time of a real action. The imperative and subjunctive moods represent the action not as real,

but as desired or imagined, and the notions of real time are discarded 1. The meaning of 'perfect order' does not go with the meaning of imperative mood because one cannot require of anyone to fulfill an action preceding the request. But it is easy to imagine a preceding action. Therefore the system of the subjunctive mood includes opposites of order. Aspect and voice opossums are characteristic of the systems of all moods, but the 'passive' and 'continuous' members of the opossums are very rarely used in the imperative mood. There are person opossums (though not systematically used) of only one type in the subjunctive mood system (should go – would go) and none in the imperative mood. The number oppose me was – were is sometimes realized in the subjunctive mood (colloquial).

Opposites of the category of posteriority (shall go – should go; will go – would go) are typical only of the indicative mood. 2. The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is the basic mood of the verb. Morphologically it is the most developed system including all the categories of the verb. Semantically it is a fact mood. It serves to present an action as a fact of reality. It is the «most objective» or the «least subjective» of all the moods. It conveys minimum personal attitude to the fact. This becomes particularly manifest in such sentences as Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen where consists denotes an actual fact, and the speaker's attitude is neutral. We shall now proceed to the analysis of the grammatical categories of the indicative mood system. The category of

tense is a system of three-member opposemes such as writes – wrote – will write, is writing – was writing – will be writing showing the relation of the time of the action denoted by the verb to the moment of speech. The time of an action or event can be expressed lexically with the help of such words and combinations of words as yesterday, next week, now, a year ago, at half past seven, on the fifth of March, in 1957, etc. It can also be shown grammatically by means of the category of tense. The difference between the lexical and the grammatical expression of time is somewhat similar to the difference between the lexical and the grammatical expression of number. a) Lexically it is possible to name any definite moment or period of time: a century, a year, a day, a minute.