The Castles of England

  • Просмотров 1462
  • Скачиваний 178
  • Размер файла 148
    Кб

Реферат по английскому языку На тему «The Tower Of London» Студента 103 группы I курса факультета Социологии Варнавского Евгения [EV1] Contents: 1.    The Development of the Tower 2.    The Normans 3.    The Medieval Tower 4.    The Tower in Tudor Times 5.    The Restoration and After 6.    The Tower in the 19th Century 7.   The 20th Century The Tower of London The History of the Tower of London Fortress, Palace and Prison This short history of the Tower of London charts the different stages of its development. Throughout its history, the Tower has attracted a number of important

functions and its role as armoury, royal palace, prison and fortress is explained, as well as its modern role as tourist attraction and home to a thriving community. The development of the Tower The Tower of London was begun in the reign of William the Conqueror (1066-1087) and remained unchanged for over a century. Then, between 1190 and 1285, the White Tower was encircled by two towered curtain walls and a great moat. The only important enlargement of the Tower after that time was the building of the Wharf in the 14th century. Today the medieval defences remain relatively unchanged. The Tower in 1100 The Tower in 1270 The Tower in 1547 The Normans WestmPRIVATECastle building was an essential part of the Norman Conquest: when Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 his

first action after landing at Pevensey on 28 September had been to improvise a castle, and when he moved to Hastings two days later he built another. Over the next few years William and his supporters were engaged in building hundreds more, first to conquer, then subdue and finally to colonise the whole of England. By the end of the Anglo-Saxon period London had become the most powerful city in England, with a rich port, a nearby royal palace and an important cathedral. It was via London that King Harold II (1066) and his army sped south to meet William, and to London which the defeated rabble of the English army returned from the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Securing the City was therefore of the utmost importance to William. His contemporary biographer William of Poitiers tells

us that after receiving the submission of the English magnates at Little Berkhampstead, William sent an advance guard into London to construct a castle and prepare for his triumphal entry. He also tells us that, after his coronation in inster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066, the new King withdrew to Barking (in Essex) ‘while certain fortifications were completed in the city against the restlessness of the vast and fierce populace for he realised that it was of the first importance to overawe the Londoners. These fortifications may have included Baynard’s Castle built in the south-west angle of the City (near Blackfriars) and the castle of Monfichet (near Ludgate Circus) and almost certainly the future Tower of London. Initially the Tower had consisted of a modest enclosure built

into the south-east corner of the Roman City walls, but by the late 1070s, with the initial completion of the White Tower, it had become the most fearsome of all. Nothing had been seen like it in England before. It was built by Norman masons and English (Anglo-Saxon) labour drafted in from the countryside, perhaps to the design of Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester. It was intended to protect the river route from Danish attack, but also and more importantly to dominate the City physically and visually. It is difficult to appreciate today what an enormous impression the tower and other Norman buildings, such as St Paul’s Cathedral (as rebuilt after 1086) or the nearby Westminster Hall (rebuilt after 1087) must have made on the native Londoners. The White Tower was protected to the