The Camera Essay Research Paper The most — страница 5

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and are great for large areas. There are more expensive camera top flashes that can be angled, fire faster and flood a larger amount of light on to the scene which makes it a portable studio flash for out doors and action. Electronic flashes are usually quarts glass tubes filled with an inert gas- usually xenon. When a jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes within the tube, a bright flash occurs. This is much more efficient than the old one time use flash bulbs filled with oxygen and fine magnesium alloy wires. One other important object to the advanced SLR user is a filter. Filters are small pieces that are made of either gelatin or glass. They screw onto the front of the lens. There are tons of different filters to accomplish different tasks. Filters can correct

lighting, change the contrast or brightness, minimize haze or create several special effects. In black and white photography, different colored filters block out one color while allowing its contrasting color to pass. This can give different effects with different colors. A red filter for instance, blocks a large amount of blue. If used in landscape photography, it will make the sky appear darker giving greater contrast between the clouds and the sky. A medium-yellow filter is most commonly used in outdoor photography because it renders the sky much the same way as the human eye does. A conversion filter is used when the color balance of the light being used is dramatically different then that of the film being used. If tungsten film was to be used outside in sunlight, a bluish

color would permeate over the picture. A conversion filter, series 85, will correct this. Daylight film, which is color adjusted for sunlight at noon, will create an amber cast on film when exposed indoors to incandescent light or photofloods. A series 80 conversion filter will correct this. Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance film to work correctly with fluorescent lighting. Photographers can also use these CC filters to make small color adjustments on the film or when printing in a dark room. Ultraviolet (UV) filters are the most common filters to be used. They filter virtually all UV light, which is invisible to humans, but can register as blue on film. Another reason many people use this filter, Is it doesn t alter the picture any other way, so it serves as a clear

protective lens cap for the camera. Another great filter to have is a polarizing filter. This filter works on the premise that light can be polarized, that is made to only come in at one direction. This filter has numerous parallel slits. When light is emanating from a source, it vibrates in all directions. If this light strikes any non-metallic surface, such as glass, it is reflected in a polarized state. In order to get rid of this reflection, such as reflection on glass in a store front window, simply screw in this filter, and turn it until the reflection is gone. There are so many new cameras coming out today from so many companies it s hard to keep track. The most common is the point and shoot camera (PAS). The point and shoot camera incorporates many of the advanced

features of the SLR into a compact design that is light and very easy to use. Most of today s PAS have autoaperture, autofocus and auto-shutter speed. Other features that have been added to PAS cameras are such things as red-eye-reduction, autoadvanceing, autorewind and light meters to automatically shut off the flash. The effect of the red centers in the eyes of the subject in photographs is commonly called red-eye for obvious reasons. This happens because the iris of the eye is open too much allowing in too much light. This causes a red reflection off the retina. To compensate, cameras have a feature that floods the eye with a bright light before snapping the shot causing the iris to close enough to eliminate the red-eye effects. Though there is still no comparison to the SLR

with all its adjustable features to make it more versatile than the PAS, which has virtually no adjustable features. More advancement in today s technology has brought forth two new technologies, the Advanced Photo System (APS) and digital photography. The APS film is greatly different form conventional 35mm film. For one thing, it is smaller than the regular 35mm film. It also records all the information onto a magnetic film, very much like the floppy disks you use in your computer. There is no leader to be wound on a take-up spool and according to its creator, the Eastman-Kodak Co., it produces a higher percentage of well exposed shots with the same high detail and sharpness of the larger, conventional 35mm format. Automated machines do all the developing work, so there is no