The Camera Essay Research Paper The most — страница 2

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for the negative, but later in 1850, changed over to glass. This process was called a collodion or wet plate. Called this, because a photographer would have to first coat a plate with the silver chloride, then place it in the camera obscura, later replaced by a special camera with a lens and a bellow, before he could take the picture. Silver chloride was replaced by silver bromide suspended in a gelatin to create a dry plate that could be prepared before hand rather than just before the photograph was to be taken. In the 1880 s, more sensitive solutions led to an up rise for a more regulated control of inlet of light. This led to the invention of the shutter. At first, they were just spring loaded blinds dropped in front on the lens. Later the innovation of a set of blades as a

shutter came to be. George Eastman, in 1878, came up with a system of flexible negatives. A long strip of paper could replace the glass plates. In 1889, he improved this by using a plastic called celluloid. This was highly effective as a film, but also highly inflammable. In 1888, Eastman invented a new type of shutter, the cylindrical shutter. It consisted of a cylinder and a string that the photographer pulled to release it. The next thing invented by Eastman was the box camera. I had a rigid box, a fixed lens, a viewfinder, and an improved spring shutter with one or two speed settings, a set aperture and a set focus. This meant that in order to focus the image, the subject would have to stand approximately 2 meters away. Not highly effective, but an incredible leap over the

others. The next company after Kodak to innovate a camera was the Leitz Company in Germany. The Leica, in 1925, had two especially important features. One, it was the first camera to use 35mm film. Before that, 35mm was reserved for movie film. The other was a focal plane shutter. This was located behind the lens and allowed a lens change while a roll of film was still in the camera. After Kodak and Leitz, many other camera makers came into the picture. There were many types of cameras to come after the box and the Leica. There was the view camera, the range finder, the point-and-shoot, and of course, the Single Lens Reflex or SLR. The view camera had several new features over that of its predecessors. Despite its awkward weight and size, it gave superior focus, aperture and

framing. It used large format films, unlike the Leica, which used 35mm. This gave better contrast and sharpness. The view had an extremely adjustable body configuration. It was composed of two individual, moveable elements. The front element held the lens and shutter, while the rear held a round glass panel. The space in between had an expandable leather bellows. The way one would shoot this camera was to first focus and frame the shot. Then one would place the film holder into the rear element in front of the glass plate. Then, click , the picture is taken. This camera was great for studio, landscape and architectural shot, but utterly useless in action situations. You could shift the rear and front elements separately to ensure maximum focus and precision perspective. The range

finder was the first to incorporate an optical viewfinder and a range finder. To focus this camera, you would adjust the focus ring until the image in both the range finder and the viewfinder became one. This was a great camera for shots at a distance, but there was some aberration in close ups. The single lens reflex is the most accurate in exposure, framing focus and aperture. It uses a system of interchangeable lenses and has the most sophisticated moving parts to make it not only the best for taking pictures, but one of the most tricky to uses, seeing that there is so mush to master. The main features that make this so versatile are it s shutter, optional auto focusing, interchangeable lenses, aperture systems, light metering systems and flash capabilities. The shutters are

spring activated and keep the light from exposing the film. There are two kinds used in SLRs, the focal plane, like that used in the original Leica, and the leaf system. The Focal plane used in the SLR is different than that of the Leica, though, based on the same idea. It blocks the light from exposing the film allowing lenses to be changed in the middle of a film roll. This also allows the SLR to use through-the-lens framing. This is done by a mirror in front of the shutter at such an angle it reflects it straight up into a pentaprism, or a five sided prism. This is specially made for each camera so that the light is reflected inside the prism twice in total internal reflection. The light enters through a perpendicular plane on the prism, then it is reflected at the critical