The British Irish Conflict Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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The IRA thencarried out continual raids on British installations in Northern Ireland trying to bringNorthern Ireland into a complete union with the rest of Ireland, and to humiliate theBritish and Irish governments. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) However, the real fighting did not begin until 1968 when the British governmentattempted to break up a Catholic civil rights demonstration. The demonstration soonturned into a riot that set off the next thirty years of fighting and violence, known simplyas “The Troubles”. (WWW.CNN.COM) During 1968 and 1969, a deep split developed in the IRA over strategy and tactics. The more powerful of the two groups that came out of the split was the provisional IRA. This group is filled with younger people who are more geared toward

getting what theywant through violence. They are an aggressive group that carries out the bombings andviolence associated with the their movement to reunite Northern Ireland with the Republicof Ireland. They get funding from at home and abroad. The other group that came out ofthe split was the Official IRA. They also work to unite Northern Ireland and the Republicof Ireland; they just use a different method. They get what they want by using politics andgoing after the base of the matter. They are mainly older members that focus on the basisof social change and use very limited violence to achieve these goals.(WWW.CNN.COM) Things were not real violent after the original start of the “Troubles” until bloodySunday. In 1972, British troops opened fire on a peaceful civil rights

demonstration,killing fourteen people. Six months later, the Irish fought back with twenty-two separate bombs that killed eleven people in Belfast, beginning a long pattern of shootings,bombings, and assassinations. In the face of this, Britain declared complete control ofNorthern Ireland, although they could not set up a permanent government due to violenceand fighting. (WWW.CNN.COM) In 1973, the Sunningdale Agreement was produced by three way talks. Theagreement gave the Republic of Ireland some government power in Northern Ireland, butbecause of a protestant uprising and out lash of violence, the Sunningdale agreement failedand the fighting continued. (WWW.CNN.COM) Throughout the seventies and eighties, the conflict between the Irish catholics andthe British Protestantsin

Northern Ireland has only gotten worse . Fighting has continuedover the control over Northern Ireland, with both sides thinking that they are in the right. Through this time, the Official IRA posed little threat to the peace efforts because of theirnon-violent attitude. Unfortunately, the Provisional IRA’s strong ties to Sinn Fien hasoften proved deadly for Northern Irish, even innocent ones. They have continuallydisrupted relations between the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Britain. (TheWorld Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) It wasn’t until 1985 that something in the form of progress came about. Britainand Ireland signed a pact that is known as the Anglo-Irish Agreement. The pact allowedthe Republic of Ireland to have an advisory role, but no direct powers, in

NorthernIreland’s government. Later, in 1993, Irish leader Albert Reynolds and British PrimeMinister John Major issued the Downing Street Declaration. It gave the people inNorthern Ireland the right to choose their own fate. It also offered Sinn Fien a seat at thepeace talk if violence by the IRA ended. In August of that year, the IRA issued a cease-fire. British Loyalists followed suit and agreed to lay down theirweapons.(WWW.CNN.COM) So in 1996, peace talks were well under way. Unfortunately, when U.S. SenatorGeorge Mitchell of Maine, and chairman of the peace talks, proposed a surrender ofguerilla weapons, the IRA refused and answered with a one ton bomb that killed twopeople in London. The talks resumed later on without the Sinn Fien and theIRA.(WWW.CNN.COM) The largest

peace effort yet has happened in the past year. Britain announced thatit would proceed with an independent inquiry into the Bloody Sunday killings of 1972.Small violent eruptions between assorted military groups killed 18 people in protest. Acting against this violence, the British Prime Minister sets a deadline of April ninth,1998, for a peace agreement. An agreement was reached in the multi-party talks, whichincluded the Sinn Fien after the IRA restored its cease-fire in July of 1997. (WWW.CNN.COM) The agreement is a major step toward a more peaceful union between the twogovernments and three regions. The agreement first calls for the accelerated release ofany war criminals that belong to the groups that are maintaining the cease-fire. But themain point of the agreement