The Black Hundred In Russia Essay Research

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The Black Hundred In Russia Essay, Research Paper The Black Hundred was an extreme right wing party which emerged at the turn of the twentieth century in Russia. Favoring tsarism and autocracy instead of a parliamentary government, the Black Hundred were the perpetrators of many Jewish pogroms in Russian cities such as Odessa, Kiev, Yekaterinoslav and Bialystok (Horowitz 703). This group of radicals increased in popularity before the beginning of the Russian Revolution when tsarism was in decline. The Black hundred believed that all Jews were revolutionaries and all revolutionaries were Jews, all Jews were capitalists and all capitalists were either Jews or tools in the hands of Jews. (Laqueur 17). This view of Jews was a distortion of the truth. In fact, the Jews in most

parts of Russia were desperately poor, making barely enough money to support themselves. Only a small fraction of Jews were capitalists. Jews were a minority in most Russian cities. However, their absence did not alter the mindset of the Black Hundred. According to them, the Jew was the Anarchist, absent and yet omnipresent, a powerful myth helping to mobilize ignorant masses. (Obraztsov 10) The first organization of the Black Hundred was the Russkoye Sobraniye (Russian Association), which was established in 1900. Existing for several years without much action toward the Jews, the Russkoye Sobraniye made its first major anti-Semitic step in 1905. At this time, the Sobraniye issued a manifesto which demanded anti-Jewish laws in view of the Jewish hostility to Christianity and the

Non-Jewish nations as well as their aspirations to world power. (Obraztsov 7). In October of the following year, a major right wing organization called Soyuz Russkovo Naroda (SRN) was established. Dr. Dubrovin was named head of the SRN and took political action by preaching Russian patriotism. At this time, Tsar Nicholas II was a perpetual supporter of the SRN, giving approximately 150,000 rubles in total to its affairs (Laqueur 26). In fact, the Tsar himself proclaimed that Jews were the cause of the downfall of Russia, and openly stated that international Jewry, through its two wings, Jewish capitalism and Jewish socialism, is fomenting revolution aiming to overthrow the Russian regime (Wistrich 46). On the topic of the Black Hundred, Tsay Nicholas II showed his enthusiasm by

calling them a shining example of justice and order to all men (Laqueur 19). An overall fear of revolution that had seized Russia during the early 1900 s was a primary cause of the popularity of the Black Hundred. They found support mainly among the aristocrats and members other lower-middle class. Although they were nowhere near a major party in Russia, they did make a major impact on the Jews of Russia, who were constantly being oppressed by their campaigns. The Black Hundred first utilized pogroms as a means of eradication of the Jews in October 1905. At that time, when the Tsar Nicholas II issued his October manifesto, furnishing the people with a democratic constitution, the Jews were chosen by the Black Hundred as scapegoats for the issuance of the new constitution. The

establishment of the Duma was the worst fear of these rightists (Obraztsov passim). According to the Black Hundred philosophy, the Jews were a race that secretly strove to take over the world. They were viewed as dangerous capitalists who strove to undermine the tsarist regime and to establish the rule of Jewish capitalism. The justification for pogroms is quoted from a speech by a member or the SRN which states that the Black Hundred never, under any circumstance, appealed for the murder of anyone. The pogroms were, according to the rightists, always triggered by brutalized, predatory, and insatiable Judea, who were tacking the unarmed Russian population (Lavrinovich 236). Another significant leader of the Black Hundred was Markov II. He was an orator of the Duma and an absolute