The Berlin Wall Essay Research Paper For — страница 2

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and a complete isolation of Berlin in only first 9 years. The next step was the most climactic occurrence surrounding the Wall. The Berlin crisis of 1961 between Kennedy & Khruschev began with their first political meeting at Vienna. Khruschev there declared either the US sign a peace treaty to end occupation or the USSR would sign one that allowed them a stake in West Berlin. After Kennedy left the summit, two grim statements were ominous harbingers of the events to come. He stated that ?Khruschev did not give an inch, not an inch.? and predicted that ? it looks like a cold winter ahead.? The high morale caused by the Bay of Pigs fiasco undoubtedly encouraged Russians to try another attempt on Berlin. Khruschev?s continuos pressure in the forms of thunderous speeches and

military threats resulted in three unwanted ways to the Russians. First, Both the Americans and NATO responded by tightening force, thus producing stronger NATO unity. But the most crucial was that of continuous emigration out of the Soviet sectors by citizens. Over 60,000 fled to West Berlin during the Summer of 1961. West Berlin was denounced as haven for ?spies, revenge seeking militarists, and nazis? by those who did welcome the refuses. This denouncement was refuted by Brandt saying West Berlin is called a ?cancer? by those who support and represent the totalitarian system. The ?poison? we spread is ideas. . . of freedom, of lawfulness, of human dignity and a decent standard of living. These are our ?weapons? and our ?threats?. They are why West Berlin must be destroyed as a

heart of freedom Over and over in many speeches Khruschev called West Berlin a ?bone in the throat? and a ?rotten tooth? that must be pulled. He vowed that his ultimatum would not be withdrawn as it had in 1958, and many observers agreed that he had too far. The disparity with which the United States viewed the Berlin crisis became apparent with President Kennedy?s dramatic appeal to the American people on July 25 1961 If we do not meet our commitments to Berlin, where will we later stand? If we are not rue to our word there, all that we have achieved will mean nothing. Today, the endangered frontier of freedom runs through divided Berlin. We want it to remain a frontier of peace . . . The Soviet government alone can convert Berlin?s frontier of peace into a pretext for war. . .

We seek peace, but shall nor surrender. That is the central meaning of this crisis. Kennedy?s speech however, could not stop the construction of the wall a month later. SUNDAY – AUGUST 13, 1961 The Wall goes up East Berlin In East Berlin, the DDR?s plan to construct the wall were kept secret to Western intelligence until after the building of the wall. All of the advanced moves leading up to the wall were literally kept invisible. Until midnight August 12, only 20 insiders knew of the happening planned in Berlin. The plan had no code name, and instructions were either oral or handwritten by one man, Gerhand Exner, the man behind the master plan of the wall. He worked alongside Erich Honecker whose operational plan was designed so that no one would think anything was strange,

and that is just what happened. At precisely midnight he ordered barbed wire be placed in all access points between the city, and by 3 am the whole perimeter was sealed. For Honecker, the operation had been a success. Life Goes ON Separating the city for 28 years the wall served as a symbol to the entire world of the tension between the free west and the communist East. But within the city of Berlin it acted as barrier. Berlin, which was once a thriving city in the heart of Germany, became two halves, a modern west and oppressed East. In the years following the construction, desperation for freedom increased in East Germany, which led to many elaborately planned escape routes. Several tunnels were dug under the wall, by east and west Berliners alike. This ?underground? operation

eventually gained international fame. Over the next twenty years, East and West Berlin grew to be two different cities. West Berlin thrived. though in the heart of communist East Germany, the city managed to establish steady trade with the west and maintain a stable capitalist economy. Industry grew rapidly, and west Berlin became a technologically advanced city. However, East Berlin did not share this affluence. On a visit in 1971, A British journalist said in reference to residential area, ? It was a depraved and impoverished area. It was a devastating site.? The tension between the US and the USSR was steadily increasing, and this was evident in the East German economy. Though the unemployment rate was low, wages steadily decreased as the price of food increased. More money