The Battle Of The Sexes

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The Battle Of The Sexes – An Essay On Gender Equality And Inequality Essay, Research Paper Gender equality aims to achieve a genuine balance between men and women by respecting human rights. A ‘gender equal society’ is a society in which both men and women are given equal opportunities to participate voluntarily in activities at all levels as equal partners and shall be able to enjoy political, economical, social and cultural benefits as well as to take responsibility equally. ‘A realization of a truly affluent society is dependent on the establishment of a social framework which allows individuals to choose various lifestyles regardless of stereotypical gender roles’ (Henley). However, every society categorizes it’s members according to sex, treating men and

women in different ways and expecting different patterns of behavior from them. The division of the human species into two fundamental categories is based on sex. All societies elaborate this biological fact into nonbiological notions of masculinity and femininity. These concepts refer not to sex but to gender, the culturally learned differences between men and women. How equal are the genders? Any analysis of sexual equality or inequality must confront the biological, psychological and cultural similarities and differences. Biological evidence reveals that men and women are different in their genes, which provide the inherited blueprint for their physical development. The male lacks a certain chromosome which makes him in many respects the weaker sex. Male infants are more

likely than females to be stillborn or malformed. Over thirty hereditary disorders, such as hemophilia and webbing of the toes, are found only in men. Furthermore, throughout the life course, the death rate of men is higher than it is for women. Women are more resistant than men to most diseases and seem to have a greater tolerance for pain and malnutrition. Men and women also have differences in their hormones, chemical substances that are secreted by the body’s various glands. The precise effects of hormones have not been fully determined, but it is known that they can influence both physical development and emotional arousal. Experiments with some animals have shown that artificially increased levels of male hormones can heighten aggressiveness and sex drive, even in

females. There are obvious anatomical differences in the sexes physical structure and appearance. The most important of these distinctions, of course, is in the reproductive system and their consequences. A mans biological involvement in reproduction begins and ends with a brief act of insemination. Women, on the other hand, bear and suckle children and as a result their personal, social and economical activities may be restricted. There are also other anatomical dissimilarities in such characteristics as height, weight, distribution of body fat and musculature. These factors make men more physically powerful than women. Their greater strength gives men the potential to dominate women by force, a fact that helps to explain why there has never been a society in which women have

had political status superior to that of men. Although there are many differences among both individual men and individual women, the typical psychological and personality patterns of adult men and women are clearly dissimilar in many ways. Men tend to be more aggressive and to have greater mathematical ability, women tend to be more nurturing and more emotional. But are these differences effects of biological or social influences? ‘The most important research on the psychology of gender concerns children who for some reason have been reared as a member of the opposite sex. A child is biologically a boy but is raised as a girl. Children can be easily raised as a member of the opposite sex.’ Over the past two decades, psychologists have published more than 16 000 articles on