The Art Of Rock And Roll By — страница 4

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fusion. Bob Dylan is a musician who played great folk music, he is responsible for raising the sophistication level of the lyrics. Around this time, 1970’s, it gets harder to generalize about attitudes. This shift in attitudes was partially caused by the technological explosion. Communications systems became much more sophisticated, and information was available instantly. From here on the book goes on to discuss the different forms of rock that came about. Chapter twelve focuses towards English Rock. English rock has a distinctive sound for several reasons: Depending on their upbringing, the musicians sing with a distinctive accent; There is a slight influence of skiffle in the beginning stages of music from the 1960’s; The technology of the amplified sound is different in

that the amplifiers are set to amplify the harmonic spectrum differently; Musical symbolism tends to be different and draws from the literary tradition of Europe; The blending of voices tends to be less emotional. Three groups who popularized English rock in America after the Beatles were The Rolling Stones, The Who, and Elton John. They capitalized on the attitudes of the times which were sometimes tasteless and antiestablishment. The Rolling Stones and The Who eventually have an impact on punk and new wave. Elton John proves the lasting impact of a pianist and a vocalist. Chapter thirteen goes onto art and eclectic rock. Art rock is a term that defines music that either has higher pretentions than standard rock or imitates another style that has been recognized as art. Eclectic

rock is a term applied to anything considered to be unusual. The chapter presents a mixture of styles tied together by the experimental quality of the music All of it was generally a fusion of rock and roll with western or nonwestern art music. Some musicians that represent this period are The Kinks, Frank Zappa, and Rush just to name a few. Chapter fourteen moves on to Country rock. It is analogous to rock music after the middle Beatles period in that it uses elements of different kinds of music. Country rock is a combination of pop, folk, jazz, rock, and country music. Country rock has a a few distinct elements. A band normally uses heavy amplification of the guitar instruments, the lyrics are most uncharacteristic of straight country music, and the musicians look different

from traditional country musicians. One of the most important characteristics of country rock was the emergence of the songwriter as the narrator and the expression of southern pride. Some bands that represent country rock are Alabama, Charlie Daniels Band, the Eagles, the Grateful Dead, and Lynyrd Skynyrd. Chapter fifteen moves onto Jazz-rock, funk, and disco. Because there were many attitudes at the same time in the 1970’s, the idea of art forms merging into something called fusion makes sense. The fusion music of the 70’s has had an enormous commercial impact, and all three types of music were financially successful. All three movements have strong jazz roots. Jazz-rock had some significance, it had some very competent musicians and began to make contributions to the rock

technique, rock became more complicated as a result, the commercial value of rock was made broader, many electronic devices became commonplace in both jazz and rock, and jazz influences began to further legitimize rock as a serious form of communication. Funk is a way of defining the music as having various sexual and social meanings. Funk evolved from soul and became a way of life within the black community. Funk can be aggressive and its musical structure combines both softness and harshness. Disco was important because it provided a central focus for the return of dancing. It is simply good-time music that is optimistic and without social comment. Chapter sixteen talks about the emergence of heavy metal. Heavy Metal is commonly described as being loud music. The elements of

heavy metal consist of heavy use of electronic devices, high volume, a thick cluttered sound where all musical elements combine to establish the sense of power, and a sound mix where the vocals are buried within the texture. Classical metal was a period in which there was a definitive split between British and American styles occurred and it was at this time that heavy metal became a separate style of rock and roll. Mainstream metal is a style that is fully developed, evolves into equal strength in all instruments and vocal aspects of the band unit, and settles into a very acceptable level of musical competence. Heavy metal became more mainstream in the 1980’s. The terms Thrash/Speed/Death came later on in the heavy metal period. Thrash was heavy metal instrumental style with