The Art Of Italy And Northern Europe — страница 2

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has committed. Adam is shown with his upper body hunched over and covering his face with his hands. Both of these characteristics are signs of his mortification. “Even the avenging angel who drives them out of the garden reflects the tragedy of the fall form grace by an expression of human concern and compassion (Fleming, 269).” During the Florentine Renaissance Sandro Boticelli surpassed the works of many of his contemporaries. The humanistic thought that was so popular during the later fifteenth century was perpetually in his compositions. Throughout the works of Boticelli, there is an evident presence of classic Roman influences. For instance there is a Roman ruin in the background of his Adoration of the Magi. Another example of the classic Roman techniques is that in

Birth of Venus, the goddess of love is standing contrapposto. The earlier Roman culture is not the only society that had an impact in Botticelli’s paintings. Paganism is obviously portrayed through the use of Venus in Birth of Venus and La Primavera, which is the depiction of a Pagan celebration. The Italian notion of humanism was motivated by a reassessment of the merits of the Greco-Roman time period. This was achieved by attempting to combine pagan mannerisms with Christian ones; by renovating the ideas of great historical philosophers of antiquity, and by reviving the notion of human values. The Northern Renaissance was a development and singling out of ideas that were popular during the Middle Ages. “Most particularly it was the trend toward an increased awareness of the

natural environment, an acute observation of the visible world, and a fascination with what the human eye could see, the mind comprehended, and the human heart could feel (Fleming, 313).” The technique of northern artists was to interpret what they had seen exactly as it really was. Under those circumstances, northern artwork was not in any way as beautified or idealized as the Italian works were. In other words, they were thoroughly different from one another. For many centuries, the techniques and thematic issues of Italian artwork have been quite altered than those of the northern art. One case in point occurred during the Carolingian Empire, when unskilled works done by Northerners could not be compared to the sophisticated authenticity that was ever present in the Italians

art. In the previous instance, as well as others, the dissimilarities of the art have evidently been a result from the contrasting cultures of the two societies. In the varying civilizations there were different goals that artists obtained. An illustration of the contradiction between the Italian Renaissance and Northern Renaissance style is the Pieta executed by Michaelangelo and as accomplished by Rotgen. In Michealangelo’s sculpture, Pieta, Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary both appear to be at ease. Christ is shown with a calm and relaxed expression on his face, which was so exquisitely sculpted in a perfect classical form. Mary is also shown in a state of tranquility; she doesn’t display any grief or anger over her tragic lose. There is absolutely no indication of the

suffering that Christ had experienced. These awe-inspiring facial characteristics are results of the cult of beauty. In the Pieta done by Rotgen, the theme of torment is clearly demonstrated and exceedingly impossible to be transgressed. This northern translation of The Virgin Mary is distinctively different then the Italian. She is anguished and deeply distressed. Her screams and moans are as good as audible to the viewer. The Virgin is shown in a position of completely disturbing torment, as is Jesus Christ. The northern and Italian version of Mary holding the deceased Christ is not the only artwork that has quite contrasted thematic interpretations. For instance, the Flemish version of the crucifixion as done by Grunewald, Eisenheim, is a total opposition of the Italian Christ

on Cross. The Italian piece by Rapheal incorporates a bright, deep and bold use of color. The sky is a vivid blue and a warm reddish tone is used for Christ’s loincloth. Onlookers are not aggrieved or infuriated. The body of Jesus Christ is serene, and is encircled by angels. The overall painting suggests as though it was a painless death. The entire scene is positively beautified. On the contrary, the sky of Eisenheim is not mistakable for that of the rich azure Italian sky. As a matter of fact, it is a cold, bleak black. The remaining tones are also just as dark, dreary, and somber. Christ’s emaciated and wounded body is in the midst of indisputable torture. His exaggerated hands are claw-like and wrenching from the nails through his palm; he seems to be gripping, as though