The Art Of Italy And Northern Europe

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The Art Of Italy And Northern Europe From 1300 To 1520 Essay, Research Paper The Art of Italy and Northern Europe from 1300 to 1520 The years between 1300 to 1520, commonly known as the Renaissance, was an era of extraordinarily advanced achievements made in the art world. Techniques that began to be utilized at this period of time made the artworks surpass those of any other preceding movement. “A word of caution is necessary when speaking of a ‘rebirth’ of the spirit of antiquity. In Italy, much more so than in northern Europe, the classical tradition had been more or less continuous (Fleming, 283).” Since the classic Roman style was consistently present in the south, the Italian Renaissance was not really a rebirth as is suggested by a literal translation of the

word. It was actually a reemphasis and reinterpretation on the already existing techniques and then after this recreation, a surpassing of them. The Italian revival of antiquity was connected to the newfound concept of humanism. The humanistic approach, was the cause of the studying of classic Pagan authors, therefore explaining the influence it had on many compositions. The origin of the Italian Renaissance can be identified to the very end of the medieval period. The latter part of the era “was one that seemed to have one foot planted in the Middle Ages and the other in the emerging Renaissance (Fleming, 248).” In approximately 1305, the visionary Giotto began his frescos at the Arena Chapel. Giotto looked at his surroundings; he saw how things appeared in nature, and

painted these objects in the same way. The impression of depth is found in his works, as was the appearance of focal points. In his masterpiece, Miracle of the Spring, Saint Francis is made the focal point. This is achieved by the coming together of the two mountains in the background in a crisscross fashion and meeting where the Saint is, simultaneously. Giotto uses the image of a sloping mountain to draw attention to the main aspect of a painting again in Pieta, Joachim Returning to the Sheepfold and Flight into Egypt. His incorporation of the mountains was done to emphasize the expressions or placement of the human figures in his works, by their appearance of density and austerity (Fleming, 237). “The mountains, or architectural backgrounds, do not exist in their own right

but become volumes and masses in Giotto’s pictorial designs as well as inanimate extensions of human nature (Fleming, 237).” The Florentine Renaissance was dominated by ideas related to classical humanism, scientific naturalism and Renaissance individualism. The Roman Renaissance occurred from the late fifteenth century until the mid-sixteenth century. At that point, art and humanism had reached their pinnacle. Masaccio was a greatly influential artist of the Florentine Renaissance. His frescoes were done in the Brancacci Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine. Massicio mastered many techniques, like use of light and shadows. In Expulsion from the Garden, light crosses the painting diagonally from the right. By having Adam and Eve approaching it, Massicio was able to

paint the casting of their natural shadows. A further significant procedure- sometimes considered the most consequential modification made in painting- that he mastered was atmospheric perspective (Fleming, 269). This was done by “surrounding the figures with light and air, by relating them to the space they occupy, by modeling them in light and shadow as a sculptor would, so that they appear as if seen in the round with all the weight and volume of living forms (Fleming, 268-269).” Massacio, with the utmost talent, incorporated emotions in this painting. The face of Eve shows the obvious hysteria that she is in by being in the midst of crying, and the position of her arms- attempting to mask her reproductive organs- expresses the shame that she feels for the sins that she