The American Labor Movement Of The 1950 — страница 2
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creating the first national freight-hauling agreement. Jimmy Hoffa helped make the Teamsters the largest labor union in the United States. Known to have long associated with underworld figures, Hoffa nevertheless survived a series of governmental prosecutions, until 1967, when he entered the federal prison in Lewisburg, Penn., to begin a 13-year sentence for jury tampering, fraud, and conspiracy. Hoffa refused to resign as president of the Teamsters while in prison and kept his position until 1971. President Nixon commuted Hoffa’s sentence in December 1971, under the condition that Hoffa could not engage in any union activity until 1980. Hoffa, however, fought the restriction in court and was widely believed to have secretly continued his efforts to reestablish a union position. On July 30, 1975, he disappeared from a suburban restaurant near Detroit under circumstances that have never been fully determined. He was said to have had an appointment at the restaurant with Anthony Provenzano, a New Jersey Teamster official and former Mafia figure, and Anthony Giacalone, a Detroit mobster; both later denied having seen Hoffa, who was never seen again. He was legally declared “presumed dead” in 1982.