The Age Of Transition Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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were very hard to come by. Two things happened that changed that. First, in 1450 Johann Gutenberg printed the first European book with movable type. Also, in the 1520’s Martin Luther translated the New Testament from Latin to German. For the first time, middle class Europeans could not only afford a Bible, but they could read it too, because it was written in a language that they could understand. This had dramatic effects. People no longer relied on the clergy for biblical enlightenment. They could now read it themselves. Towards the end of the 15th century, many European nations became very interested in exploring and exploiting the wealth of foreign lands. Christopher Columbus’ unexpected discovery of the Americas in 1492 triggered an even more intense desire for

exploration. People in the middle class had a lot to gain from their country’s exploration of new lands. It offered many opportunities for adventure and wealth. These opportunities caused the Commercial Revolution. A business venture (such as trade with other countries) required an enormous amount of wealth. Some times prospective businessmen formed something called a joint-stock company. Several investors would put their money together for a commercial undertaking, and share the profits. Sometimes a company would sell huge shares or stocks to many people, and profit immensely. The Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company were two such examples. By the early 1500’s England, Spain, and France had developed strong central governments whose rulers were called

absolute monarchs. Powerful government, such as these, usually brought peace and prosperity to a nation. Businessmen did not have to worry about such inconveniences as constant civil disorder, wars between neighboring kingdoms, different monetary units produced by different lords, and expensive taxes by individual rulers. The government also produced a standard currency for the entire country. This made doing business easier, and many middle class people became bankers. In general the rise of national monarchies brought peace and economic stability to the region. The middle class played a significant role in the Age of Transition. They supported artists during the Renaissance. They learned to read the bible and helped to spread Protestant ideas. They encouraged, invested, and

took part in overseas expeditions during the Age of Exploration. The rise of national monarchies made their business easier to conduct and more prosperous. joint-stock company. Several investors would put their money together for a commercial undertaking, and share the profits. Sometimes a company would sell huge shares or stocks to many people, and profit immensely. The Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company were two such examples. By the early 1500’s England, Spain, and France had developed strong central governments whose rulers were called absolute monarchs. Powerful government, such as these, usually brought peace and prosperity to a nation. Businessmen did not have to worry about such inconveniences as constant civil disorder, wars between neighboring

kingdoms, different monetary units produced by different lords, and expensive taxes by individual rulers. The government also produced a standard currency for the entire country. This made doing business easier, and many middle class people became bankers. In general the rise of national monarchies brought peace and economic stability to the region. The middle class played a significant role in the Age of Transition. They supported artists during the Renaissance. They learned to read the bible and helped to spread Protestant ideas. They encouraged, invested, and took part in overseas expeditions during the Age of Exploration. The rise of national monarchies made their business easier to conduct and more prosperous.