The Advantages Of Photovoltaics Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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The sun heats the earth from the heat, radiation, and other things that are emitted by the sun. When the heat and radiation enter the earth’s atmosphere and hit the earth, they warm it up. The angle of the earth affects how much of the energy is absorbed by the earth or reflected by it. The closer the angle is to 90 degrees, a greater percent of the energy will be absorbed. The reflected energy then goes out of the atmosphere, but with global warming, the reflected energy can’t escape. The CO2 traps the heat in the atmosphere, just like a greenhouse, hence the name greenhouse effect, which leads to global warming. Another problem with coal is that we are depleting the coal resources at ever increasing rates. Once we have used up all of the coal reserves, there is no more

coal. This isn’t good, and worse is that energy use will increase. Thomas Johansson, the professor of Energy Systems Analysis says that there will be a 265% increase in the demand for electricity between 1985 and 2050. Unless the US switches its source for electricity, then we will have a huge problem to deal with(Thomas Johansson, p 17). Global warming will lead to a change in the climate. This change will disrupt the food chain, which is essential for all living things. Also, global warming will shrink the North American growing belt. This will cause mass food shortages, price hikes, and 400 million lives could be lost. Global warming will dry up the growing areas and will make them hotter. This will result in less precipitation, such as less rain and snow (Flavin, p19).

There is a chance of climate oscillation. This could cause plants to die. The decrease in plants could lead to the death of billions of people world wide. All of these people dying would cause people to be insecure about their own lives, and they would withdraw all their money from banks and from their stocks. This could cause another stock market crash. The unemployed people would cut back their consumption. Thus, our economy would collapse(Milbrath, p28). There are many advantages of using photovoltaic cells instead of using coal or any other fuel. Nuclear energy is much worse than using photovoltaic cells. One way using photovoltaic cells is better is because of the proliferation of nuclear energy. There is a large chance that the proliferation of nuclear energy can be abused.

However, there is very little chance that the use of photovoltaic cells could be abused because they have no known harmful side effects. Fusion reactors pay-back-time, which is how long the reactor must be used until it produces more energy than was needed for the reaction, is 20 years and the life of the reactor is only 30 years. Therefore the reactor will have to be producing nuclear waste for 20 years until it is equal in how much energy is used and how much energy is produced. It is not reasonable to use nuclear power plants. Oil is a large fuel source found mostly in the Middle East. If we decrease our oil dependency, then we can also decrease our defense budget. The implementation of photovoltaic cells decreases this dependency because if we don?t have to fear Middle East

countries attacking us, then we don?t need as large of a defense budget. Photovoltaics are also better because they are a renewable energy source. As Scheer said “Energy is the lifeline of any natural and societal development…All humanity is threatened with decline because the energy supply system of the 20th century has all-encompassing destructive consequences-the exhaustion of oil, coal, natural gas…The energy crisis becomes a crisis for humanity”(Scheer, p16). Another advantage of photovoltaic cells is that there is no public or governmental opposition to the implementation. There are many signs that there is public support and support from companies. One is that there are many model houses being built that are going to put photovoltaic cells on the roof. Also, in

Atlanta, the designers of the natorium were going to put photovoltaic cells on the roof (Gunther, p96). Another advantage of using and developing photovoltaic cells is that there is a large boost to the economy. This is the effect if the government uses a small amount of money to research and test the use of highly reflective roofing and other shading techniques could lower the temperature of Los Angeles by 5 degrees. This could reduce air conditioning bills in excess of $150 million . A decrease of 5 degrees would be like taking 3/4 of the cars off the road in terms of smog formation. The reason for this is because smog formation is very temperature sensitive. There would be savings of $300 million a year in health benefits. If this plan was carried out nationwide, there would