The Abstract Wild Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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tampered with and altered by humans. Wild nature, however, still exists in more remote wilderness areas. The third chapter Turner returns to more narrative writing and explains his respect and love for mountain lions. He expresses a relationship with mountain lions similar to that of Doug Peacock and his experience with Grizzly Bears. In chapter four, Economic Nature, Turner explains how John Locke and Adam Smith shaped the ideas of our economy and how that has affected society?s perception of nature. Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson, and Adams decided the early fate of the American wilderness through Christian and Enlightenment ethics. They divided the land into a grid and sold it to men. The land became the private property of men, who farmed and extracted resources as they

pleased. Turner comments on how language has added to ecological ignorance. The American language is based on ideas of economy, and as ecological problems arise people use economic terms to describe nature. Thus, ecological problems are not properly dealt with or even understood because they are viewed and discussed in terms of economy. The economy views nature anthropocentrically. The resources of the land are to be used for the purpose of improving technology and economy. This problem of language is the reason why biological scientists and shallow ecologists fail to see the answer to ecological problems. Turner raises the question that if ecological problems are technology-based, then how could technology solve ecological problems? According to Turner, this is a problem of

language and perception, and eventually transforms into a problem of morals and values. Another problem with viewing things economically is that everything must be commensurate. Economically, everything has a value in money. There is a major problem with viewing a forest as millions of dollars. When you look at a forest as money you are completely blind to its true importance as an ecosystem. The wild and the sacred of the forest is lost. The degradation of wild nature is a direct result of our language and economic perceptions of the world. Of course, the first step toward finding solutions to ecological problems would be changing our language. Turner offers the solution that if "we refuse these three moves- the abstraction of things into resources, their commensurability

in translatable units, and the choice of money as the value of the units- and economic theory is useless(64)." The preservation of the wild nature requires a deeper geocentric view of the world. Chapter five delves into the Turner?s knowledge and experience of the white pelican. Little is known about these ancient birds because they avoid human contact. Turner is intrigued by their behavior. He observes the white pelicans as enjoying their risky high dive flights. He makes the connection between the peculiar behavior of the white pelican and the nature of wild animals. He questions their love for soaring as a logical choice for enjoyment. Within this chapter Turner also raises another big issue. He discusses the influence humans have on wild animals when they try to study

them, and he explains some of the detrimental effects that occur upon human interference and control of wild animals and their habitats. Turner seeks a higher, more idealistic, approach to learning about wild animals. He believes that if we sit quietly in their habitat "they will come to us(71)." Turner displays an wild connection, understanding, and respect for the white pelican. He thinks that the behavior of the white pelican is another insight into the idea of the wild. The main idea of chapter six is that one of the main roots of the modern environmental crisis is the mistake of wilderness for wildness. It was Henry David Thoreau who was first mistaken. Thoreau was an American pioneer of the wild. His most famous quote is "In Wildness is the preservation of

the World." Unfortunately, that quote is now severely misconceived; for we have replaced Wildness with wilderness. The word Wildness has negative connotations in today?s society. Thoreau was describing Wildness as a good virtue connected with freedom. Thoreau looked pass the problems of wilderness and ecosystems. He wasn?t concerned with deforestation or biodiversity. Thoreau went deeper and found the root of the problem was in Wildness. That was where the fight was. Thoreau?s main struggle was the preservation of wild and to reincarnate that virtue into humanity. Turner claims that our wilderness is not very wild, and he gives four reasons for this. His first reason is that wilderness areas are too small. He believes that for a person to really experience the wild they need