Territorial varieties of English pronunciation — страница 8

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than [u] in words such as hook, book, look. They therefore distinguish pairs like book and buck, which in the south sound [buk] and [DAK], in the North as South North Book [bu:k] [buk] Buck [bk] [buk] Another well-known feature which distinguishes northern and southern accents concerns the vowels and [a]. Before the voiceless fricatives [f, , s] and certain consonant clusters containing initial [n] or [m], is pronounced in the north instead of [a]. South North path [pa:] [p] dance [da:ns] [dns] Note: Speakers with more strongly regional southern substandard accents may not have the contrast or, at most, have a contrast that is variable. In the south, however, [K] is often pronounced as [a]: A = in path B – [a] in path C = [a] contrast absent or in doubt One more

major north-south differentiating feature involves the final [i:] like in words city, money, etc. In the north of England they have [i]. In the south of England these words are pronounced with [i] e.g. South North city [siti:] ['siti] money [mni:] [mani] In consonants It has been mentioned above that some English accents are «rhotic» or «r-ful» and other are non-rhotic or «r-less». Rhotic accents are those which actually pronounce [r], corresponding to orthographic «r» in words like bar and farm. This [r] sound is post-vocalic and is most often heard in Scotland, Ireland and in the southwest of England. The map on p. 222 shows the spread of post-vocalic [r] (A = post-vocalic [r] present, B = post-vocalic [r] absent). In most regional accents the glottal stop is more

widely used than in RP. In some areas, especially the north-east of England, East Anglia and Northern Ireland, the glottal stop may also be pronounced simultaneously with the voiceless [p, t, k], most strikingly between vowels: pity [pit? i:] Many non-RP speakers use [n] in the suffix «– ing» instead of; sitting [sitin]. In an area of western central England which includes Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool they pronounce [g]: singer [sige], wing [wig]. Now about [j] – dropping. In most accents [j] is dropped after [t, s]: student [stjudənt], suit [sat]. In parts of the north the change has progressed a good deal further, it has been lost after []: enthusiasm [an'u:ziəzm]. In large areas of eastern England [j] is lost after every consonant. In London [j] is lost

after [n, t, d]: news [nu:z], tune [tu:n]. Southern English Accents We now turn to an examination of regional non-RP accents of England and we shall first give a brief outline of the group of Southern accents. As was stated above, educated Southern speech is very much near-RP accent whereas non-standard accents are very much near Cockney. Therefore we shall focus our attention on the rather detailed description of uneducated London accent – Cockney. Cockney accent. It has been long established that Cockney is a social accent – the speech of working-class areas of the Greater London. Here are some pronunciation peculiarities of it. In vowels 1. [] is realized as [i]: blood [bd] – [blid]; 2. is realized as or [i]: bag [bg] – [bg], [big]; 3. [i] in word-final position

sounds as [ij: city [siti] – [siti:]; 4. when [o:] is non-final, its realization is much closer, it sounds like [o:]: pause [po:z] – [po:z]; when it is final, it is pronounced as [o:ə]: paw [po:] – [po:ə]; 5. the diphthong [ei] is realized as [i] or [ai]: lady [leidi] – [lidi:], [laidi:]; 6. RP [3] sounds as []: soaked [skt] – [skt]; 7. RP [a] may be [ə]: now [na] – [nə], In consonants 1. [h] in unstressed position is almost invariably absent; 2. [?] is widely spread in Cockney speech: paper [pi? pa], butterfly [b'təflai]; 3. The contrast between [] and [f] is completely lost: thin [in], booth [bu:f]; 4. The contrast between [] and [v] is occasionally lost: weather [weva]; 5. when [] occurs initially it is either dropped or replaced by

[d]: this [dis], them [(d)əm]; 6. [1] is realized as a vowel when it precedes a consonant and follows a vowel, or when it is syllabic: milk [mivk], table [teibv]; when the preceding vowel is, [1] may disappear completely; 7. is replaced by [n] in word-final position: dancing [da:nsin] or it may be pronounced as [ik] in something, anything, nothing: [nfik]; 8. [p, t, k] are heavily aspirated, more so than in RP; 9. [t] is affricated, [s] is heard before the vowel: top [trap]. Northern and Midland Accents Midland accents, Yorkshire, for example, West Midland and North-West accents have very much in common with Northern ones. Therefore they are combined in this book into one group; peculiar realization of vowels and consonants will be marked, of course, when each subgroup is