Territorial varieties of English pronunciation — страница 12

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non-syllabic according to Ch. Thomas. It involves the characteristic hindering of the free flow of breath which we associate with consonants. The sound [r] in far closes the syllable more definitely than in British Received Pronunciation of the word [fa]. On the other hand, there is a vocalic, or vowel-like and syllabic [r], that occurs in words like bird, murmur (after a vowel and before a consonant). Ch. Thomas writes that in such cases we should better transcribe the words bird and murmur like [brd] and [mrmr]. In such cases [r] is responsible for the characteristic vowel-like quality within the syllable; it is responsible for syllabic quality as well. That's why Ch. Thomas says that [r] syllabic in bird and [r] non-syllabic in far should be transcribed differently. According

to V.A. Vassilyev it is still the vowel of the word that forms a syllable ([3;] in bird, [o:] in corn, etc.), not the syllabic [r] sound. He mentioned although that all the vowel sounds in pre – [r] position sound more like [a], [r] gives the preceding vowel a retroflex coloring. It means that the tip of the tongue glides to the retroflex position without, however, staying there long enough to produce a full-fledged retroflex [r] sound, [r] also prolongs the vowel a little. V.A. Vassilyev uses the term «[r] – compensating» vowels (suggested by AX. Trakhterov) for the vowels in such words in British Received Pronunciation. 4. One more peculiar feature of pronunciation of vowels in American English is their nasalization, when they are preceded or followed by a

nasal consonant (e.g. in such words as take, small, name, etc.). Nasalization is often called an American twang. It is incidental and need not be marked in phonemic transcription. 5. GA front vowels are somewhat different from RP. Vowels [i], [i] are distributed differently in GA and RP. In words like very, pity GA has [i] rather than fij. In word final position it is often even diphthongized. Vowel [e] is more open in GA. It also may be diphthongized before [p], [t], [k]: let [leat]. 6. There are four mixed or central vowels in GA: [3], [ə], [], [a]. They differ markedly from RP vowels in articulation and distribution. 7. The three RP vowels [α], [a] correspond to only two vowels in GA – [a]. This combined with the articulatory differences between RP [α] and GA [a] and a

difference in vowel distribution in many sets or words makes it very complicated. The following chart vividly shows it. RP GA Dad [] [] dog [α] [a] path [α:] [] dance [α:] [] half [α:] [] Besides, word distribution of [α] in RP and GA is completely different. GA is intermediate in quality between the RP and [α]. In its production the lips are considerably less rounded. 8. Now to the qualities of GA diphthongs. a) the diphthong [ei] is closer in GA as opposed to RP; b) very front realization of [] such as in RP is not found in GA; c) the nucleus of [a] tends to be more advanced in GA; d) since GA is a rhotic accent with non-preyocalic [r], it has the consequence that the following RP vowels (derived historically from vowel + [r]) do not occur in GA:

[iə] in dear – GA [dir], [ə] in dare – GA [deir], [ə] in tour – GA [tur]. 1. The RP allophonic differentiation of [1] does not exist in GA. In all positions [IJ is fairly dark. 2. Intervocalic [t] as in pity is most normally voiced. The result is neutralization of the distribution between [t] and [d] in this position, i.e. latter, ladder. The original distinction is preserved through vowel length with the vowel before [t] being shorter. In words like twenty, little [t] may even drop out. Thus winner and winter, for example, may sound identical. 3. GA [r] is articulated differently from RP one. The impression is one of greater retroflexion (the tip of the tongue is curled back further than in RP). 4. The «wh» spelling is represented in GA by [M] sound (or some-times

transcribed as [hw]. So most American speakers make a clear distinction between «wh» and «w» words: where – ware, which – witch. 5. The sonorant [j] is usually weakened or omitted altogether in GA between a consonant (especially a forelingual one) and [a-] as in the words: news [nu:z], Tuesday [tuzdi], student [studant], suit [sat], tube [tab], stupid [stu:pid], during (du:ri). A. 1. Many differences involve the pronunciation of individual words or groups of words. 2. Words apparatus, data, status can be pronounced with either [ei] in GA, but only with [ei] in RP. 3. Words like hostile, missile, reptile have final [ail] in RP. In GA they may have [əl]. 1. In words of French origin GA tends to have stress on the final syllable, while RP has it on the initial one: GA RP