Territorial varieties of English pronunciation — страница 10

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it was gradually replaced by English. Incidentally a number of writers and poets of the likes of R. Burns retained their native language. Nowadays educated Scottish people speak a form of Scottish Standard English which grammatically and lexically is not different from English used elsewhere, although with an obvious Scottish accent. We must admit, however, that non-standard dialects of Scotland still resemble Scots and in many respects are radically different from most other varieties of English. It is very difficult to understand them for students who learn RP. At the moment there is currently a strong movement in Scotland for the revival of Scots. Nevertheless Scottish Standard English is still more prestigious and in this book we concentrate on Scottish English as used and

spoken by educated urban Scots. As for the status of Scottish English, in this book it will be treated as a dialect though it is fair to say that there is much in favor of calling it a national variant of English. Vowels 1. Since Sc. Eng. is rhotic, i.e. it preserves post-vocalic [r], vowels such as RP [iə], [3:], [ə], [uə] do not occur: RP Sc. Eng. Beer [bra] [bir] Bird [b3:d] [bird] Hurt [H4:t] [hrt] Bard [ba:d] [ba:rd] Moor [mə] [mr] 2. Length is not a distinctive feature of Scottish vowels. So pairs like pool-pull, palm-pam, cot-caught are not distinguished. It should be noted, however, that vowels are longer in final stressed open syllables than elsewhere. 3. Monophthongs are pure, there is no trace of diphthongization with the exceptions of [ai – ei], [ao

– eu] and [01]. 4. The RP [a(a)] distinction doesn't exist: hat [hat], dance [da:ns]. 5 – [i], [u], [] [ə] may be central. 6. In non-standard Sc. Eng. accent [u:] often occurs when RP has [au]: house [haus-hu:s] 7. It is interesting to mention that [TO] and [su] may be not contrasted. 8. In very many regional accents do, to are pronounced as [də], [tə]. 9. In some accents words such as arm, after, grass may have [e] rather than [a:] after [ftə]. Consonants 1. Sc. Eng. consistently preserves a distinction between [w]: which [vit] – witch [wit]. 2. Initial [p, t, k] are usually non-aspirated. 3. [r] is most usually a flap. 4. Non-initial [t] is often realized as glottal stop [?]. 5. [fl is dark in all positions. 6. The velar fricative [x] occurs in a number of

words: loch [lux]. 7. – ing is [in]. 8. [h] is present. 9. A specific Scottish feature is the pronunciation of [r] as [r]: through [ru;]. Northern Ireland English It should be stated first of all that English pronunciation standards in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Eire are different. The explanation lies in history. In the Middle Ages almost the whole of Ireland was Irish speaking. Nowadays, however, native speakers of Irish are few in number and are confined to rural areas even though Irish is the official language of Ireland and is taught in schools. The English language in Southern Ire-land was originally introduced from the West and West Midlands of England and still shows signs of this today. This kind of English has spread to cover most of the Irish

Republic. Naturally the pronunciation of these areas retains features of western parts of England. The English of northern parts of the island with its centre in Belfast has its roots in Scotland, as large numbers of settlers came to this part from the south-west of Scotland from the seventeenth century onwards. Now speaking about Northern Ireland, it is true to say that English here is not homogeneous. Areas of the far north are heavily Scots-influenced. Other parts are marked by less heavily Scots-influenced varieties of English. It is, of course, obvious that the language distinction is not coterminous with the political division of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, some areas of the Republic, Donegal, for instance, speak N. Ir. Eng. (Northern Ireland English),

while some of the northern provinces speak S. Ir. Eng. (Southern Ire-land English). In this chapter we shall deal with Northern Ireland English pronunciation. Vowels The vowel system is similar to that of Scottish accents, post-vocalic retroflex frictionless sonorant [r] being used as in Scotland. [i]: pit [pit], fir [fir], bird [bird], city [siti], fern [firn], fur [fir]; [i:] bee [bi:], beer [bi:r], seedy [si:di], meet [mi:t], meat [mil]; [e] pet [pet], bed [bed]; [] but [bt]; [a] pat [pat], bard [bard], hat [hat], dance [dans], half [haf]; [] put [pt], boot [bt], pull [pl], pool [pl], poor [pr]; [o] boat [bot], board [bord], pole [pol], knows [noz], nose [noz], pour [por], pore [por]; [α]: cot [k α t]; [ai]: buy [bair], tide [taid]; [au]: bout [baut];