Term Paper Ancient SumeriaBabylon Essay Research Paper

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Term Paper- Ancient Sumeria/Babylon Essay, Research Paper One of the many ancient civilizations that need to be clarified is ancient Sumeria. Sumer was an ancient region in southern Mesopotamia, located in the extreme southeastern part of what is now Iraq. The land of Sumer was virtually devoid of human occupants until about 5000 BC, when settlers moved into the swamps at the head of the Persian Gulf and gradually spread northward up the lower Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Although the Sumerians as people disappeared, their language and literature continued to influence the religion of their successors. Their basic economic organization and system of writing cuneiform, architectural forms, and legal practices remained in use. ?Later generations elaborated upon the mathematics and

astronomy that the Sumerians had originated.? (Beret 113.) Almost every culture or ancient civilization has a flood story. For example, in the Old Testament, there was a flood story that lasted forty days and forty nights. In the Sumerian civilization, there is a flood story as well. The motive for the flood story in the Old Testament is similar to the motive in the flood story in the Sumerian culture. This motive was to punish the wickedness of men. The flood happened in a city called Shurrupak. It stands on the bank of the Euphrates River. The city grew old and the gods that were in it grew old. The city was in an uproar and the god Enlil heard the clamor and he said to the god in the council, ?The uproar of mankind is intolerable and sleep is no longer possible by reason of

the babel.? (Bailey 59.) The gods decided to exterminate mankind. ?For six days and six nights the winds blew, torrent and tempest and flood overwhelmed the world, tempest and flood raged together like warring hosts.? (Bailey 57.) Even the gods were terrified at the flood, they fled to the highest heaven, the firmament of Anu. In Babylonian civilizations, a god is responsible for reasoning and wisdom. This god of wisdom is Enki. Enki receives his power from the resources and fertility of the land. The myth of Inanna and the god of wisdom begins with Inanna delighting in her womanhood and wishing to test its powers. In this myth, Inanna goes on a journey. Inanna sets out to visit Enki, the god of Wisdom, who is also the god of Waters. In Sumerian, ?Enki? means the god of the

Earth. (Beret 111.) As god of wisdom, Enki knows that the powers of knowledge need to be shared. As king of Eridu, he knows that the best rule is the self-sufficiency of his citizens. (Beret 111.) As a father, he knows the best way to raise his children is by encouraging initiative and independence. ?Like a first drop of water, which generously offers a place o the second drop, Enki in his state of drunkenness, freely shares his own powers.? (Beret 111.) Enki belives that power should be concurrent. Powers should be shared among citizens. He believes that when this task is done, more wisdom is gained to the individual. A hero is a character whose actions are inspiring and or noble. Deeply troubled by the death of his friend Enkidu, Gilgamesh embarks on a quest not for glory but

for everlasting life in the flesh. Gilgamesh is a great hero known for defeating Humbaba. Gilgamesh has a restless and arrogant nature. Enkidu was created by the goddess Aruru because of Gilgamesh?s strong arrogance. Enkidu was made to contend with Gilgamesh and absorb his energies. However, Enkidu was no match for Gilgamesh. Instead he became his faithful companion. Enkidu is like the rational type while Gilgamesh acts bold and fearless. ?O my Lord, you may go on if you choose into this land, but I will go back to the city, I will tell the lady mother all your glorious deeds till she shouts for joy; and then I will tell her the death that followed till she weeps for bitterness.? (Wolkstein 143.) This quote shows how Enkidu is rather reluctant to assist Gilgamesh in fighting