Television Censorship Essay Research Paper TELEVISION CENSORSHIPWHAT — страница 2

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standards gave a movie a seal of approval. A system of film classification was begun in 1968 and has been revised several times since then. Films are given ratings, as follows: G (general audiences), PG (Parental Guidance advised), PG-13 (may not be suitable for pre-teens), R (persons under age 17 not admitted unless accompanied by parent or adult guardian), and NC-17 (persons under age 17 not admitted, replaced the X rating in 1990) (Microsoft Encarta 95)” TELEVISION AND RADIO GUIDELINES “For the television and radio industries the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has generally established vague rules about program content containing an implied threat that a license can be revoked for repeated poor judgment involving program content. In 1987 the FCC responded to

public complaints by adopting measures to restrict the use of explicit language about sex and bodily functions from the broadcasting media. Another code, designed by the National Association of Broadcasters, is voluntarily adhered to by station operators. The major networks also have their own self-regulating system. The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), for example, has a staff of people who review scripts and watch everything that is aired on CBS-TV, including commercials; every contract with a producer provides that the project is subject to approval under this system (Microsoft Encarta 95).” PRIVATE ACTION GROUP GUIDELINES “In the US, many different private groups attempt to influence radio and television and broadcasters and other communication media to suppress

material that they consider objectionable. Religious, ethnic, and racial groups have tried to prevent plays, movies and television programs from being presented because of elements they deem offensive.” “One private group, the American Civil Liberties Union, promotes the open flow of all types of information in the belief that individuals should have free access and opportunities for the exercise of their personal discretion and that no group should limit the availability of the resources from which such choices are made (Microsoft Encarta 95).” TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPETITION AND DEREGULATION ACT OF 1995 THE GOALS “This Act is intended to establish a national policy framework designed to accelerate rapidly the private sector deployment of advanced telecommunications and

information technologies and services to all Americans by opening all telecommunications markets to competition, and to meet the following goals: 1) To promote and encourage advanced telecommunications networks, capable of enabling users to originate and receive affordable, high-quality voice, data, image, graphic, and video telecommunications services. 2) To improve international competitiveness markedly. 3) To spur economic growth, create jobs, and increase productivity. 4) To deliver a better quality of life through the preservation and advancement of universal service to allow the more efficient delivery of educational, health care, and other social services (Telecommunications Bill 1995, Internet).” THE FINDINGS The Congress makes the following findings: ? “Competition,

not regulation, is the best way to spur innovation and the development of new services. A competitive market place is the most efficient way to lower prices and increase value for consumers. In furthering the principle of open and full competition in all telecommunications markets, however, it must be recognized that some markets are more open than others.” ? “More competitive American telecommunications markets will promote United States technological advances, domestic job and investment opportunities, national competitiveness (Telecommunication Bill of 1995, Internet)” VIEWERS HAVE OPTION TO WATCH VIOLENCE ON TELEVISION One Associate Night Editor, Daniel C. Stevenson, wrote a column called, “Viewers Have Option To Watch Violence On Television”. In this column, he

states, “It should not be the responsibility of the government to decide what is good and bad for viewers, it should be the responsibility of the viewers themselves. A film or book that is vulgar or horrifying to one person might be seen as beautiful art or entertainment to another. Such value judgments should be left up to each person, not formulated by the government. Any kind of government control that seeks to expose children only to ?good? events and actions is a violation of an important freedom?the freedom to see both sides of an event, to observe both good and bad (Microsoft Internet Explorer).” Another viewpoint is that of Pat Paulsen, TV personality, on January 7, 1968. He states, “Many people feel that censorship is a violation of Freedom of Speech?Bull