Telecommunications In Korea Essay Research Paper INTRODUCTIONTelecommunications — страница 4

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intervals and switched in turn by the time division switching system so that many calls are multiplexed by the same switch. Digital exchanges are cheaper to install and maintain than analog exchanges particularly in the larger sizes. Among the advantages of digital switching are its compatibility with computers and potential cost and space savings when operated in conjunction with digital transmission systems (Lee 27). The links carrying calls between exchanges may be symmetrical pair cable, quad cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber cabled. The choice of medium depends upon bandwidth or traffic volumes to be carried, the distance and terrain to be covered, the performance required, the distribution of the traffic and the cost. Interexchange transmission system in the past were

analog but are now being superseded by digital systems. Technological developments are reducing cost and improving the quality of service. Optical fiber cable is particularly suited for high capacity routes, leaving longer distances between repeaters, further reducing cost and increasing reliability. Optical fiber cable will be replacing coaxial and quad cable systems as the preferred medium. Microwave systems are particularly suitable for medium and high capacity routes in inhospitable terrain. Coaxial or optical fiber submarine cable is also an economic choice in numerous cases for long distance or international transmission. There are many advantages of digital switching and transmission. Such a network carries data traffic as easily as voice traffic and therefore is used by

many types of service. The result is economies of scale and resilience when traffic on particular services peaks. The computers within exchanges monitor and control the behavior of the network as a whole system and open up new capabilities and techniques of operation. The flexibility of digital systems also simplifies the physical design of networks so that the limitations on serving large areas from a single exchange are reduced. KTA hopes to digitalize all phone lines by the year 2005. CHAPTER 2: Media One specific industry that was directly in the reigns of the Korean government was the media. The communications media in South Korea was under the dictatorial governmental press control. This changed in 1987. A major historical Declaration released the media from this tight

hold. Future Korean President, Roh Tae Woo, would make the 29 June Declaration explicitly calling for “freedom of the press” (Won 215). With the abolition of regulations that previously limited the number of regional newspapers to one to a province, a large number of newspapers were reopened or newly founded. Religious bodies and other corporations began broadcasting on new radio channels. Now people could express their opinions and publicize topics which were once prohibited by the government. There was also a dramatic increase in the number of periodicals on the market. In addition, with the lifting of the de facto prohibition against the establishment of new newspaper, three general-interest daily newspapers, Hankyoreh Shinmun, Segue Ilbo, and Kookmin Ilbo, began

publication in Seoul with nationwide distribution. The effect of the June 29, 1987 Declaration can be seen by the skyrocketing of media sources. Whereas Korea had only 30 national and regional newspapers being published at the time Roe Tae Woo made his famous 1987 liberalization declaration, by the end of 1989, this number had more than doubled to 68. The number of periodicals published daily, weekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly increased from 2,241 prior liberalization to 3,441 in December 1988. Another 109 periodicals were registered with the government in January 1989 (Won 217). Furthermore, information Ministry figures for December 1989 show that Korea had 4,400 periodicals, including 68 dailies, two news services and 819 weeklies (Won 217). Another important result of

this 1987 Declaration was its repeal of the Basic Press Law, the government policy which created hierarchy and multiple regulations for the press. The Basic Press Law, effective in January 1981, contained a number of measures that facilitated the government’s control of media. This law contained a number of harmful provisions allowing the government to confiscate media material, such as newspapers and magazines, and which strictly defined the responsibility of the media. In addition, it enabled the government to close a publication in instances where a publication engaged in activity that went against its stated purpose of publication or disturbed the public order by inciting violence or other means (Won 218). Publications could also be closed down if they were found