Telecommunications Essay Research Paper TelecommunicationsThe transmission of — страница 3

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industry as a whole, because if two devices use different standards they are unable to communicate properly. Standards are developed in two ways: (1) the method is so widely used that it comes to dominate; (2) the method is published by a standard-setting organization. The most important organization in this respect is the International Telecommunication Union, a specialized agency of the United Nations, and one of its operational entities, the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). Other organizations in the area of standards are the American National Standards Institute, the Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the Electronic Industries Association. One of the goals of these organizations is the full realization of the integrated services

digital network (ISDN), which is projected to be capable of transmitting through a variety of media and at very high speeds both voice and nonvoice data around the world in digital form. Other developments in the industry are aimed at increasing the speed at which data can be transmitted. Improvements are being made continually in modems and in the communications networks. Some public data networks support transmission of 56,000 bits per second (bps), and modems for home use (see Microcomputer) are capable of as much as 28,800 bps. Introduction When a handful of American scientists installed the first node of a new computer network in the late 60’s, they could not know by any chance what phenomenon they had launched. They were set a challenging task to develop and realise a

completely new communication system that would be either fully damage-resistant or at least functional even if an essential part of it was in ruins, in case the Third World War started. The scientists did what they had been asked to. By 1972 there were thirty-seven nodes already installed and ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NET), as the system of the computer nodes was named, was working (Sterling 1993). Since those “ancient times”, during which the network was used only for national academic and military purposes (Sterling 1993), much of the character of the network has changed. Its today users work in both commercial and non-commercial branches and not just in academic and governmental institutions. Nor is the network only national: it has expanded to many

countries around the world, the network has become international and in that way it got its name. People call it Internet. The popularity of this new phenomenon is rising rapidly, almost beyond belief. In January 1994 there were an estimated 2 million computers linked to the Internet. However, this is nothing compared to the number from last year’s statistics. At the end of 1995, 10 million computers with 40-50 million users were assumed to be connected to the network-of-networks. If it goes on like this, most personal computers will be wired to the network at the end of this century (Internet Society 1996). The Internet is phenomenal in many ways. One of them is that it connects people from different nations and cultures. The network enables them to communicate, exchange

opinions and gain information from one another. As each country has its own national language, in order to communicate and make themselves understood in this multilingual environment the huge number Internet users need to share a knowledge of one particular language, a language that would function as a lingua franca. On the Internet, for various reasons, the lingua franca is English. Because of the large number of countries into which the Internet has spread and which bring with them a considerable variety of languages English, for its status of a global language, has become a necessary communication medium on the Internet. What is more, the position of English as the language of the network is strengthened by the explosive growth of the computer web as great numbers of new users

are connecting to it every day. Internet, in computer science, an open interconnection of networks that enables connected computers to communicate directly. There is a global, public Internet and many smaller-scale, controlled-access internets, known as enterprise internets. In early 1995 more than 50,000 networks and 5 million computers were connected via the Internet, with a computer growth rate of about 9 percent per month. Services The public Internet supports thousands of operational and experimental services. Electronic mail (e-mail) allows a message to be sent from one computer to one or more other computers. Internet e-mail standards have become the means of interconnecting most of the world’s e-mail systems. E-mail can also be used to create collaborative groups