Technology And The State Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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could now be staged by land, sea, or air – who’s land, sea or air seemed irrelevant. The direct application of these new machines was devastating but also had a huge effect on society. Such sudden change in technology meant that the very nature of war itself changed, targets changed. Boundaries were becoming increasingly permeable, and the fact that bombers could travel hundreds of miles brought these new targets into play that were traditionally out of reach. It was now evident to states that the factories where weapons were produced could be targeted, cutting off the supply at the root. Without new technologies these options would not be open to them and the state would not have to worry bout aerial strikes at the heart of their societies. Increasingly throughout the Second

World War society was the target, the potential for death in the inner cities was immense. World war two had turned out to be a war of society vs. society. Bombers could be sent by the thousand and turn once bustling cities to rubble. Further technological improvement meant the emergence of the most destructive force known to man, the Atom bomb. Infinitely more has been at risk from the possibility of nuclear war than ever before, not a fact lost on states. The US was the first to develop this technology but was by no means the last. Not only did they gain a sense of superiority but they could also offer their citizens protection by using the bomb as deterrence against other states. Nuclear permeability is now feared above all else especially after witnessing that it’s

capabilities aren’t speculatory, the results were clearly seen at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. For a state the development of nuclear weapons has been an important factor, giving them a sense of achievement, power, status, strength but above all security. France for example strove for nuclear capabilities as a means of strengthening their role as an international actor. It seems paradoxical that states feel increased security by possessing nuclear weapons when in reality they are treading a line that could result in a nuclear winter. The foreseeable effects of nuclear war have been enough to deter states from going to war with each other. It has also meant that lesser conflicts have decreased because of fear of escalation. As Herz says, states have lost their sense of territoriality

and with the advent of weapons of mass destruction new ways of assuring security have had to be addressed. States have had to become increasingly more diplomatic, shying away from the topics of war and attempting to see their one-time foes in a more amiable light. This may present itself as an increased urge for international interdependence or a move toward complete globalization. As it stands both these avenues are being explored, the EU for European integration and the UN for global cooperation. Boundaries are permeable by more than just military application. We must remember that advancements in technology have effects on both the military and civilian aspects of society. Trains, planes and automobiles are responsible for the transportation of goods not only nationally, but

also internationally. Our world has become increasingly smaller as technology has led to globalization. Borders are much more than mearly permeable when it comes to trade. Over the past few decades we have seen big firms setting up production in foreign countries (foreign direct investment). Even in Britain, Japanese car and electronic firms are attracted here by our government. Technology has brought about the power of the Internet, available to all who posses a computer and modem. A virtual world that has no boundaries between countries, where even language barriers are diffused and where governments may strive for censorship but find it impossible to achieve. Increasingly states have began to concern themselves with international organizations that may not have direct power

over countries but succeed nonetheless to keep order on things through mutual cooperation. It seems then that technology has had an adverse effect on how states have reacted to threats. Although states would of course traditionally attempt to avert war, going to war seemed like the natural way of settling disputes. With the advent of improved technologies, namely the nuclear bomb, war against nuclear entities would not occur because of the potential for destruction. Long-range atomic missiles leave no part of the world free from the effects of an atomic blast. To a lesser extent is the threat from inter-continental ballistic missiles. These along with nuclear missiles can travel at jet-speeds of around 500mph. The potential to negotiate after a missile has been deployed is