Teaching speaking through discussion

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Teaching speaking through discussion COURSE PAPER PRESENTED BY Olga Baran a fourth year student of the English department SUPERVISED BY Larysa Viktorivna Lemeshchuk an assistant professor of the English department LVIV 2009 Contents Introduction 1. Chapter 1. Fundamental considerations in teaching writing essays 1.1 The importance of writing essays 1.2 Basic principles of teaching writing essays: writing techniques and stages 1.3.organization of the essays. Essay structure 2. Chapter 2 2.1 Types of essays. Essay samples 2.2 Punctuation. Word choice 2.3 Linking words and phrases 2.4 Plagiarism Conclusion References Introduction Written communication has become extremely

important for interaction in the modern world with the instant technological development. Recently writing assessments and essays have become a vital part of a formal education. Secondary students are taught to structure their compositions in order to improve their writing skills. Both in secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of material. Students are asked to explain, comment on or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. What is an essay? Essay is a short piece of writing on a particular subject which presents the author’s point of view. It is an organized set of ideas and reflections. This presentation of views must be done in a logical and factual manner with the use of the first person often discouraged. The

leading essayist Aldous Huxley defines essay in the following way - “Like the novel, the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything, usually on a certain topic. By tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece, and it is therefore impossible to give all things full play within the limits of a single essay. But a collection of essays can cover almost as much ground, and cover it almost as thoroughly, as can a long novel”. The word "essay" originated from French word "essai" which means "effort, sketch". It reflects the essence of this notion. It is a personal attempt to give a challenging sketch on certain issues. Every attempt is different and presents versatile ideas, but people must not be afraid

of writing even knowing that it is too complicated to express themselves in a proper way. Essay should be structured in various sections that make it easy for the readers to read and follow the author’s thoughts clearly. To show your grasp of the ideas studied learners have to express them in their own words. Writing essays is not the easy task. Nevertheless, it is a good way to stimulate learning and critical thinking that makes writing a valuable part of any language course. It enables learners to display the skills and abilities which they possess and remaining an important method of assessment, helps to discriminate between students, to test their intellectual capabilities. Raimes points out “Writing helps students to learn. Firstly, it reinforces the grammatical

structures, idioms, and vocabulary that teachers have been teaching their students. Secondly, when students write, they also have a chance to be adventurous with the language, to go beyond what they have just learned. Thirdly, when students write, they necessarily become very involved with the new language [14, p.58] Professor Roy Wilkinson has identified a pyramid of skills which teachers try to test with the help of essay assignment. Tarvers explains that “Writing is a powerful instrument of thought. In the act of composing, writers learn about themselves and their world and communicate their insights to others. Writing confers the power to grow personally and to effect change in the world" [18, p.45] Moreover, the skill of writing essays is an essential tool in