Teaching Esl Essay Research Paper OPTIONS IN — страница 4

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for through protocol analysis, a teacher can tell how students write, the strategies they use to generate ideas, how often they revise and edit their work, whether their written work has improved at all. 3. Learning logs A learning log is another form of assessment that helps teachers keep track of what students are learning, particularly in the writing class, and in the language class as a whole. According to Applebee & Langer (1992), in a learning log, students write about the knowledge they have gained from studying in their writing classes, and from their own thinking. One great advantage of learning logs is that student’s record in writing information and their thoughts about it. A teacher doesn’t grade learning logs, but from these logs a teacher can assess how much

a student has gained or benefited from the writing class. 4. Journal entries Journal entries may be used as an informal means of assessment by the teacher. I said informal because journal entries are personal and intimate. It is a record of thoughts and impressions mainly for personal use. What a teacher can do is to write short notes in response to students’ thoughts. Just as in portfolio assessments, journal entries may be a source for conferencing. Journal keeping, being informal in nature, enables a student to get extensive writing practice. Some of its advantages are : (1) it can be enjoyable, since it gives the students free reign to write on any topic at the spur of the moment; (2) it offers students the privacy, freedom, and safety to experiment and develop as a writer

(Applebee and Langer, 1992). Since journal keeping is as private and confidential as well as a highly individualized process, assessing students’ journal entries is also a private matter between the writer and the teacher. At this point, I am pleased to say that I started journal keeping at the DLSU Writing lab in the late 80’s. I required all students to keep their journals in the Writing Lab. Because the students had been doing it regularly, it eventually became a habit with them. I gave them a maximum of 10 minutes to write briefly on anything that came to mind, e.g., family gatherings, family problems, ideas on love and courtship, travel, current-events, special occasions and other relevant issues. They wrote down their thoughts in a few sentences at the beginning, but

their writing improved and developed so much so that at the end of their Writing Lab stint, they could already compose their thoughts in longer paragraphs. Sometimes the teacher responded to journal entries through conferencing. At the beginning, for as long as the students could communicate their thoughts on paper, for as long as their writings were comprehensible – their grammatical flaws and lapses were taken care of later. What worked well at the time were due to several factors such as the interest of the students, the patience of the lab instructors, and the collaboration between the lab instructors and the subject teachers. Incidentally, I also suggested to the lab teachers to keep journals and engage in writing their journal entries simultaneously with the students.

Occasionally, some students shared their entries with the class. I believe that journal entries may also contribute greatly to the humanistic approach to teaching and learning, an example of which is the integration of values during the sharing sessions. 5. Dialogue-journals. Another non-traditional form of assessment of writing is written dialogues between teacher and students. They are applicable to both language and literature classes as well as content area courses Kreeft, Jay and Staton (1993) distinguish journal keeping from dialogue journals as follows : Journal keeping is a provide journal which provides practice in writing. It does not give students assistance beyond what he/she already knows how to do. Dialogue journals, on the other hand, are written dialogues with a

teacher or on rare occasions, a classmate, which provides guided assistance to the learner in expressing ideas and feelings, describing and elaborating on experience, and reflecting more and more critically on that experience. Dialogue journal interaction creates a context of equality and power symmetry that leads to trust between learner and teacher. A dialogue journal aims to show how it can support a reflective, interactive classroom, which is rewarding for both teacher and students. Its value in terms of assessment is that it provides unassisted, unedited samples of student writing and reading comprehension as students become more and more able to read and respond fluently to the teacher’s entries. Kreeft, Jay and Staton, 1993). Incidentally, this shows that reading cannot