Teaching Esl Essay Research Paper OPTIONS IN — страница 3

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Before they left the class at noontime, the students had to put their portfolios on the desk and would get them back as soon as they arrived the following morning. The students had all the time to discuss their assignments, to write, to do exercises, and other activities relevant to the subject matter. Likewise, I had all the time to assess their work with the assistance of course of the whole class. Incidentally, I also asked my students to put their journals entries in a small notebook, which they kept in their portfolios. Two days before the end of classes, I required my students to prepare a table of contents for their portfolios and to write a timed reflective essay in class which was the only timed writing they did, explaining their choice of papers for assessment and

evaluation purposes. They got back their portfolios with my written comments and suggestions on the last day of classes as part of our culminating activity. This doesn’t mean, however, that portfolio assessments should be done only once; actually, they should be done at the outset and progress along with the students’ own progress in writing. Portfolio collections form the basis for conferences, which I will discuss in a little while as one of the responses to student writing. Conferencing is a vital component of portfolio assessment. Farr & Lowe (1991) are of the opinion that students, through conferencing and keeping portfolios, experience making real-life decisions as well as decisions about schoolwork. In order for students to take responsibility for their learning

and their lives, ownership of their own choices and actions is an all-important consideration. In the traditional approach, ownership of work and learning is looked upon more as the responsibility of the teacher than of the learner. But when students actively participate in the selection and discussion of their work, they gain a true sense of ownership, which results in personal satisfaction, and feelings of self-worth. For portfolios to meet the goals of literacy assessment, Farr & Lowe state that they must be developed as follows : + Teachers and students both add materials to the portfolio. + Students are viewed as the owners of the portfolios. + Conferencing between students and the teacher is an inherent activity in portfolio assessment. + Conference notes and

reflections of both the teacher and the student are kept in the portfolio. + Portfolios need to reflect a wide range of student work and not only that which the teacher or student decides is the best. + Samples of the student’s reading and writing activities are collected in the portfolios-including unfinished projects. Applebee and Langer (1992) believe that portfolios of students’ work offer one of the best vehicles for ASSESSMENT OF WRITING for two reasons : 1. They typically contain a variety of different samples of student work, and 2. They make it easy to separate evaluation from the process of instruction. No system of assessment is as perfect as portfolio assessment according to Gallehr (1993) because students are required to write, but within this requirement, they

can choose the topic, audience, responders in the class, revision strategies, etc. They are also free to select from their works the pieces they want to include in their portfolios. This shows that portfolios may be used as a holistic process for evaluating course work. Portfolios provide a sound basis on which to document individual student progress because they can incorporate a range of assessment strategies over an extended period of time. 2. Protocol-analysis A second though somewhat complicated means of assessing student writing is protocol analysis. Actually, protocol analysis, as well as the other non-traditional forms of assessment, is a writing procedure that promotes the process approach to writing. Protocol analysis is also known as the “composing aloud protocols”

or a “think aloud” activity, which is the exact opposite of the fixed model used by traditional composition teachers. This type of analysis reveals the conscious processes involved in writing. In this approach, students are asked to record every thought that comes to mind during the writing process. The transcripts are analyzed and used as one of the instruments for assessing student writing. To enable the students to use protocol analysis effectively, the teacher should first serve as model. She should show the class how to proceed, by making the class listens to a tape-recorded model of her own protocol analysis procedure, or to do actual protocol analysis in the classroom with students listening and observing. Assessment of student writing can be done using this strategy